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Pregnancy and Human Development

BIO201 Presentation
by

Rachel Battaglia

on 25 January 2013

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Transcript of Pregnancy and Human Development

Emily Stone
Rachel Battaglia
Samantha Andews Pregnancy Accomplishing
Fertilization Fertilization occurs when a sperm's chromosomes combine with those of an egg to form a fertilized egg (zygote)

An oocyte is fertilizable for up to 24 hours; most sperm are viable within the female reproductive tract for one to two days

Sperm must survive the hostile environment of the vagina and become capacitated (capable of reaching and fertilizing the oocyte)

Hundreds of sperm must release their acrosomal enzymes to break down the egg's corona radiata and zona pellucida

Once the sperm head has entered the oocyte, waves of Ca+ are released by the oocytes, causing a cortical reaction, which destroy the sperm receptors, preventing further sperm from entering.

Following sperm penetration, the secondary oocyte completes meiosis II

Maternal and paternal chromosomes combine and produce the diploid zygote Preembryonic Development Mammary glands enlarge causing the breasts to swell and become tender in preparation for breastfeeding. This is due to increase levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

The uterus is growing and begins to press on the woman’s bladder, causing the need for her to urinate more frequently.

Cardiac volume increases by approximately 40 to 50 percent from the beginning to the end of the pregnancy, causing an increased cardiac output. An increased cardiac output may cause an increased pulse rate during pregnancy. The increase in blood volume is needed for extra blood flow to the uterus. Mothers Development The amniotic sac forms

A distinct face starts to form
with dark circles for eyes

Baby is around 6-7mm. The size
of a grain of rice The First Month t
Development of placenta begins
Release of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) into the blood
An outer cell mass that becomes the placenta, is a pancake-shaped organ that delivers life-sustaining oxygen and nutrients, carries away waste products and secretes hormones of pregnancy Begins with the movement of the
preembrio to the uterus
Mitotic divisions after fertilization occur,
resulting in smaller cells, a process called cleavage
The trophoblast adheres to, digests, and implants in the endometrium
Implantation is completed when the blastocyst is entirely surrounded by endometrial tissue, about 12 days after ovulation Pregnancy Tests Designed to tell if your urine or blood contain hCG 1. Urine Tests- at home or at doctors, takes about a week after missed period, 97% accuracy

2. Blood Tests- at doctors, used less often, detect pregnancy earlier than urine test, results can take longer, 99% accuracy
Qualitative- hCG present
Quantitative- exact amount of hCG in blood The Sixth Month Major Changes During Third Trimester Seventh Month Eighth Month Ninth Month Mothers Development First Trimester
Fetal Development The Second Month Facial features continue to develop

The neural tube is well formed

The digestive tract and sensory
organs begin to develop

The baby is 2.54cm. The size of
a sweet pea The Third Month Can open and close fists

Fingernails and toenails
begin to form

The baby’s reproductive organs
also develop

The baby is about 3-4in.
The size of a plum The Fourth Month The baby’s toes and fingers are well defined

Eyelids, eyebrows, eyelashes, nails, and hair is formed

Teeth and bones become denser

The baby can suck thumb, yawn, stretch, and make faces

Reproductive organs fully formed

The baby is about 4.6 in. The size of an avocado The Fifth Month Fat begins to form
Taste buds beginning to develop
The retinas have become sensitive to light
The baby can hear sounds
The baby is about 6.5 in. The size of a banana Growth rate is slowing
Starting to produce white blood cells
Eyelids begin to part and the eyes open
The baby is about 10.5in. The size of a
cantaloupe Morning sickness abates

Appetite may increase

Feel the baby move

Visibly pregnant

Weight increase Third TrimesteR (Weeks 28-40) Baby will gain the most weight during this trimester.

The baby is developing billions of neurons in the brain and continue to develop more fat

The mother’s respiratory system, cardiovascular system and hormone levels change in response to the growing baby and in preparation for labor.
Muscles and lungs continue to mature and develop.

Eye sight is about 20/400

The baby’s head is starting to enlarge to account for his growing brain.

The baby requires more Calcium than ever, as it ingests about 250 mg. of Calcium a day to strengthen and develop its bones

The baby will grow to over 3 lbs. and 16 inches long. The baby is about the size of an eggplant. The baby is about to hit a growth spurt as it will gain 1/3 to 1/2 of it’s body weight in the final 7 weeks, gaining about 28 grams/day

It can move and turn its head, arms and legs

Toenails, fingernails and hair are all well established The baby now weighs about 4.75 lbs. and is 18
inches long

The central nervous system and lungs are maturing

By 35 weeks, the baby’s kidneys are fully functioning and the liver can process a small amount of waste

At week 36, baby sheds the lanuga and vernix caseosa

The baby is beginning to form its first black tarry stool called meconium. The Final Weeks!
Week 37-40 Lungs are fully developed

Surfactant has been released to aid in respiration outside of the womb

The baby’s organs are all fully developed

Fat layers will regulates
body temperature

The fetal head moves down - lightening Physiological Changes Initiating Birth Causes the uterus to form abundant oxytocin receptors
The baby’s lungs produce surfactant to prepare for breathing outside the womb.
Surfactant triggers an inflammatory response in the cervix to stimulation softening for labor
Fetal cells produce oxytocin that cause the placenta to release prostaglandins to stimulate uterine contractions.
Creates a positive feedback mechanism as increases distension leads to increased release of oxytocin.
The fetal fibronectin adhesive proteins binding the placenta together changes to a lubricant before labor begins. Possible Complications Third Trimester
Physiological Changes in Mother Shortness of breath and heartburn as uterus expands

Respiratory system increases tidal volume

Kidneys and ureters expand as GFR increases up to 50%

Increased urination or incontinence from pressure and increased urine formation

The Mother's nipples may start to secrete colostrum
Fetal cells produce oxytocin causing release of prostaglandins --> uterine contractions

The fetal fibronectin adhesive proteins changes to a lubricant Parturition (childbirth) 3 Stages:

1. Shortening and dilation of cervix

2. Descent and birth of the infant

3. Birth of the Placenta Final Stages of Pregnancy
to Birth
Placental Abruption
Premature Birth
C-Section
Hemolytic anemia
Gestational Diabetes
Edema
Preeclampsia
Hemmorhoids
Varicose Veins
Ectopic Pregnancy
Deep vein thrombosis
Postpartum depression http://www.babycenter.com/2_inside-pregnancy-fertilization_10354435.bc References www.babycenter.com
www.hopkinsmedicine.org
www.masteringaandp.com
www.pregnancy.org
www.webmd.com

Pregnancy Outline Fertilization
Video
Implantation
Pregnancy Tests
First Trimester
Second Trimester
Third Trimester
Complications The Sweet Reward!
Full transcript