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Types of Transformations

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Saltanat Baitursunova

on 8 April 2014

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Transcript of Types of Transformations

Types of Transformations
Transformations
Grammar transformations
morphological or syntactical changes in translated units
Complex transformations
concern both the lexical and grammatical level
a)Explicatory translation
e.g. I have a nine-to-five job.- Я работаю с 9 утра до 5 вечера.
gun licence-удостоверение на право ношения оружия
b)Reduction(omission,implicitation)
e.g. сторонники охраны окружающей среды-conservationists;
внебюджетные источники финансирования-nonbudget sources;
контроль за ходом проекта-the project control;
a)Grammar substitution
e.g. Martin Heidegger is generally regarded as one of the most influential founders of existentialism.- Мартина Хайдеггера обычно считают одним из самых значительных основоположников экзистенциализма.
Her hair is fair and wavy.- У нее светлые волнистые волосы.
He is a poor swimmer.- Он плохо плавает.
b) Word order change
e.g. A new press conference was held in Washington yesterday

Вчера в Вашингтоне состоялась новая пресс-конференция.
a)Transcription
e.g. eau de cologne-одеколон, hake-хек, Oakland-Окленд,William-Уильям;

b)Transliteration
e.g. London-Лондон, Washington-Вашингтон, Campbell-Кэмпбелл
Lexical transformations
change the semantic core of a translated word
c)Calque translation(blueprint)
e.g. extralinguistic-внеязыковой,старовер-Old Believer brainwashing-промывка мозгов;
half-calques:
South Korea-Южная Корея,Old Jolyon- Старый Джолион;

"translator's false friends":high school-средняя школа(not высшая школа),restroom-талет(not комната отдыха),дом отдыха-resort(not rest home);
d) Sentence integration
e.g. If one knows languages, one can come out on top.-Зная языки, можно далеко пойти.
c)Integral transformation
replacement of a set phrase with another structure that has the same speech function
Lexical
Grammar
Complex
classification by V.N. Komissarov
e)Metaphoric transformations
e.g. Don't dirty your hands with that money!- Не марай рук этими деньгами!
Он вернет нам деньги, когда рак свистнет- He will pay us our money back when hell freezes over.
copying the sound form of the SL word by means of the TL letters
representing written characters of one language by the characters of another
translation of a word or a phrase by parts
d)Lexical substitution
putting one word in place of another
Specification
e.g. Will you do

the room?-Ты уберешься в комнате?
I'll get the papers on the way home-
Я куплю газеты по дороге домой
Generalization
e.g. People don't like to be stared at-Людям не нравится когда на них смотрят.
She bought the Oolong tea on her way home-По дороге домой она купила китайского чаю.
Differentiation
e.g. bamboo curtain-железный занавес
Modulation
e.g. But outside it was raining-
Но на улице шел дождь
are based on transring the meaning due to the similarity of notions
с)Sentence partitioning
e.g. I want you to understand this transformation.-Я хочу,чтобы вы поняли эту трансформацию.
Моя машина не завелась, поэтому я не смогла заехать за вами.-My car wouldn't start. Therefore, I couldn't pick you up.
e)Grammar compensation
e.g. "Take some of the conceit out of him," he gurgled. "Out of who?" asked Barbara, knowing perfectly well that she should have said 'whom'
"-поубавь немного у него тщеславия,"-буркнул он. "C кого?"-спросила Барбара, хорошо зная, что ей следовало сказать "у кого".
changing of a grammar category of the translated unit
replacement of a simple sentence in the ST with a complex sentence with several independent sentences in the TT for structural, semantic or stylistic reasons
making one sentence out of two or more,or convert a complex sentence into a simple one
deliberate change of the grammar category by some other grammar means
d)Antonymic translation
describing the situation by the target language from the contrary angle
e) Complex compensation
deliberate change of the word or structure by another one because the exact equivalent of the TL word or phrase is unable to produce the same impact upon the receptor as does the SL wod or phrase
rewording the meaning into another structure so that the receptor will a better understanding of the phrase
giving up redundant and communicatively irrelevant words
e.g. How do you do?-Здравствуйте!;
Wet paint- Осторожно, окрашено;
Help yourself- Угощайтесь;
e.g. It wasn't too far.- Это оказалось довольно близко.
Not far=близко
e.g. Their food, clothing and wages were less bad than they had been.-Теперь их еда, одежда и зарплата были не такими уж и плохими, как когда-то.
Don't trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.- Во дворе трава на траве дрова.

Thank you for your attention
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