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Sunset Syntax

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J. Glowney

on 28 February 2012

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Transcript of Sunset Syntax

the horse participial phrases * unscramble the sentence and write it out, punctuating it correctly The horse found the entrance to the trail where it left the
flat and started up stumbling and slipping on the rocks found the entrance to the trail where it left the flat and started up stumbling and slipping on the rocks week one - 22 August 2011 circle two subjects, double-underline three controlling verbs, underline one participial phrase, add one comma and one period Basic English Syntax subject controlling verb phrase clause independent clause dependent clause sentence non-essential (descriptive) phrase participial phrase absolute phrase appositive phrase repeat-word modifer simple compound complex compound-complex } infinitive phrase analysis modifier gerund phrase prepositional phrase adverb clause adjective clause plus a complete thought is called an... which can stand alone as a... without a complete thought is called a... { A controlling verb is the verb that must be present in order for a clause
to make sense. In a verb phrase, the controlling verb is the first verb. Of the six verb forms in the English language, only three can serve as controlling verbs.
This means that every clause in the English langauge must have one of the following verbs: simple present (simpres) / simple past (simpas) / modal What are the six English verb forms? stem simple
present present
participial simple
past past
participial modal English Verb Forms controlling verbs (to) be is / are / am being was / were (have) been (to) go go going went (have) gone (to) buy buy buying bought (have) bought can / could / will / would / might / may / shall should / ought Well, how do I find the controlling verb? step 1: look for copulas (simpres and simpas "to be" verbs: is / are / am / was / were these five words are always controlling verbs step 2: look for modal verbs can / could / will / would / shall / should / may / might / ought modal verbs are also always controlling verbs step 3: look for -ed endings regular simpas verbs are formed by adding -ed to the stem form but be careful - words that end in -ed can also act as adjectives or
past participles step 4: look for things you can do if you haven't found your controlling verb(s) by now, go through the
sentence word-by-word and ask yourself if you can do it over time, you'll begin to notice words that can never be controlling verbs look at the word just in front of the -ed word. If it's "a," "an," or "the,"
your -ed word is an adjective. If the word in front is another verb
(probably simpres or simpas), then your -ed word is a past participle 4 Steps for Finding Controlling Verbs * the subject is the word that "takes"
or forms a meaningful relationship with the controlling verb the subject usually - but not always - appears just to the left of the controlling verb find the subject by asking "who?" or "what?"
of the controlling verb * also... only subjective nouns and subjective pronouns
can be subjects words that show possession or ownership
cannot be subjects adjectives and words contained within prepositional
phrases also cannot be subjects Sunset High School Syntax Guide click on any frame to zoom on contents 2011.2012 click on arrows to examine relationships subject + controlling verb * a compund-complex sentence has two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses compound-complex sentences will have at least three subject-controlling verb pairs compound-complex sentences will likely have coordinating and subordinating conjunctions a complex sentence has exactly one independent clause and at least one dependent clause complex sentences usually have subordinating conjunctions a simple sentence has exactly one independent clause and no dependent clauses simple sentences do not need coordinating or subordinating conjunctions a simple sentence has only one subject-controlling verb pair a compound sentence has two or more independent clauses and no dependent clauses compound sentences use coordinating conjunctions a compound sentence has at least two subject-controlling verb pairs coordinating conjunctions allow clauses of equal weight
and importance to be joined clauses can be rotated around coordinating conjunctions;
in other words - it doesn't matter which clause appears first and / or / but / yet / nor when joining clauses with a coordinating conjunction,
place a comma before the coordinating conjunction a complex sentence has at least two subject-controlling verb pairs subordinating conjunctions are used to show a relationship between clauses when a subordinating conjunction is used, the clause it introduces becomes
dependent - it cannot stand on its own as a sentence because / so / as / when / even though / although when a complex sentence begins with a dependent clause, a comma is
needed after the clause when a complex sentence begin with an independent clause, no
comma is needed complex clause a synonym for "sentence" an independent clause can stand on its own subject + controlling verb + complete thought clause a dependent clause cannot stand on its own subject + controlling verb non-essential (descriptive) clause clause a clause (subject + controlling verb) used for descriptive purposes
but not needed to create a complete sentence non-essential clauses can be - but don't always have to be - marked by commas clause tells how, why, when, or under what condition something occurred begins with a subordinating conjunction subordinating conjunctions are used to show a relationship between clauses when a subordinating conjunction is used, the clause it introduces becomes
dependent - it cannot stand on its own as a sentence because / so / as / when / even though / although when a complex sentence begins with a dependent clause, a comma is
needed after the clause when a complex sentence begin with an independent clause, no
comma is needed * * clause a more sophisticated way of identifying a person, place, thing, or idea adjective clauses begin with one of the following
words: who, whose, which, or where an adjective clause must appear immediately to the right of whatever
noun or pronoun it describes { Descriptive Phrases a group of words acting as a single part of speech basic categories: noun phrase, verb phrase, descriptive phrase phrases do not contain subject + controlling verb relationships * * * phrase a way of expressing the idea of a verb in the form of a noun, adjective, or adverb infinitive phrases are formed by following the infinitive marker "to" with a stem-form verb infinitive phrases can be subjects, objects, or modifiers To be a true friend is among life's most difficult tasks. zoom out and read about controlling verbs
for more about English verb forms * * phrase phrase phrase phrase phrase phrase a way to use the idea of a verb in the form of a noun gerunds take the same form as participles: adding -ing to a verb's stem form gerunds can act as subjects or objects in a sentence; gerunds do not follow controlling verbs zoom out and read about controlling verbs
for more about English verb forms * Running marathons is my favorite kind of exercise. * a way to indicate location, origin, or motion within a noun phrase prepositional phrases begin with prepositions prepositional phrases can be objects; they do not contain subject + controlling verb relationships prepositions a closed class of words used to indicate relationships
of location, origin, and motion think about one word you would use to explain
the relationship of a pencil to a book the pencil could be: on the book, in the book, by the book, next to the book, behind the book,
against the book, between the pages of the book, around the book, under
the book, .... and so on there are roughly 150 prepositions in English a phrase used for descriptive purposes but not needed for the expression of a complete thought non-essential phrases are marked by commas a non-essential phrase used to describe
something in the sentence participial phrases come in two flavors: present participle and past participle participial phrases are so called because they begin a participle present participle past participle -ing -ed Focused on his future, Ted got to studyin'. Hoping for the best, I answered the phone. participial phrases can appear anywhere
in a sentence without restriction a non-essential phrase used to describe a sentence generally absolute phrases are almost independent clauses (sentences), but they lack
a controlling verb absolute phrases can appear anywhere in a sentence without restriction try using the formula: (possessive pronoun)+Noun [was] _____-ing to create an absolute phrase [was] his head was hurting his head hurting * a non-essential phrase used to identify and describe some noun or pronoun
in the sentence appositive phrases must contain an appositive - a noun that could replace whatever
noun or pronoun is being idenitified an appositive phrase can appear anywhere in a sentence, but... it must be placed immediately before or immediately after the word it identifies form appositive phrases by thinking of a replacement noun, then describing it with adjectives Ted helped us. man the kind-hearted man Ted, the kind-hearted man, helped us. http://goo.gl/dOZV6 Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into a present participial phrase.
Make two combinations per pair. Tamika traveled to the airport in a yellow van. She arrived twenty minutes early. You may need to add or remove words participial phrases *Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a present participial phrase (PrPP).
*Make two combinations per pair. week one - 22 August 2011 The coach has called two straight running plays with no
success. He then decides to signal for a long pass. You may need to add or remove words Bell Ringer 08/31/2011 *Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a present participial phrase (PrPP).
*Make two combinations per pair. week one - 22 August 2011 The robin eats at the bird feeder each morning.
The bird is occasionally joined by a pair of sparrows. You may need to add or remove words Collect your composition book and begin combining your sentences immediately. week one - 25 August 2011 participial phrases *Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a present participial phrase (PrPP).
*Make two combinations. The secretary of state flies into Kashmir this weekend.
She attempts to work out a peaceful settlement in the
region. You may need to add or remove words week 1 participial phrases *Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a present participial phrase (PrPP).
*Make two combinations per pair. week three - 8/9 September 2011 My cat refused to eat any food in his tray. He seemed
to be on a hunger strike until we allowed him to lick
off the dinner plates. You may need to add or remove words Collect your composition book and begin combining your sentences immediately. week 2 participial phrases *Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a past participial phrase (PaPP).
*Make two combinations per pair, one before the noun that the PaPP
modifies and one after it. Columbus was exhausted by a series of storms on his
fourth voyage. He stayed in his cabin for the duration
of the journey. You may need to remove words Collect your composition book and begin combining your sentences immediately. week 3 *When you've completed your combinations, underline the PaPPs, label them
with PaPP, then draw an arrow from each PaPP to the noun it modifies. week four - 13/14 September 2011 participial phrases *Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a past participial phrase (PaPP).
*Make two combinations per pair, one before the noun that the PaPP
modifies and one after it. The caterpillar is denied an opportunity to live. It is
swatted onto the floor a few feet in front of me. You may need to remove words Collect your composition book and begin combining your sentences immediately. week 4 *When you've completed your combinations, underline the PaPPs, label them
with PaPP, then draw an arrow from each PaPP to the noun it modifies. What happened
here!?!? week four - 15/16 September 2011 participial phrases *Combine the following sentences by turning one of them into
a past participial phrase (PaPP).
*Make two combinations per pair, one before the noun that the PaPP
modifies and one after it. Tillery was bothered by the inane behavior displayed
by the characters on Jersey Shore. She quickly turned the
channel to Bubble Guppies. You may need to remove words Collect your composition book and begin combining your sentences immediately. *When you've completed your combinations, underline the PaPPs, label them
with PaPP, then draw an arrow from each PaPP to the noun it modifies. week five - 20/21 September 2011 participial phrases *Copy the sentence below exactly as it appears. Then, underline any
PaPPs or PrPPs, label the participial phrase as PaPP or PrPP and draw
an arrow from the participial phrase to the word it modifies. Located at this time in the Cairo museum, King Tut's
coffin is made of solid gold, gleaming under the warm
museum lights. Collect your composition book and begin combining your sentences immediately. week 5 week five - 22/23 September 2011 participial phrases...or are they? *Copy the two sentences below exactly as they appear. One contains
a PrPP - the other does not. Identify the PrPP, underline and label
the PrPP, then draw an arrow from the PrPP to the word it modifies.
Leave the other sentence alone for now. Dancing as a cultural activity probably started with
ancient religious ceremonies.

Moving into other areas of life, it later became a form
of recreation and entertainment. Collect your composition book and begin immediately. week six - 27/28 September 2011 gerunds and participles *Copy the two sentences below exactly as they appear. One contains
a PrPP, the other contains a G (gerund). Identify the PrPP, underline
and label the PrPP, then draw an arrow from the PrPP to the word
it modifies. Place the symbol G above the word you think is a gerund. Ancient performers, lacking a stage, danced in a great hall.

Members of the audience would enjoy dancing of every
description. Collect your composition book and begin immediately. week 6 week six - 29/30 September 2011 gerund-subject; gerund-object *Copy the three sentences below exactly as they appear. One contains
a PrPP, another contains a G-S; the third contains a G-O. Underline
and label the PrPP, then draw an arrow from the PrPP to the word
it modifies. Place the symbol G-S and G-O above the appropriate
gerunds. By covering his exploits with glamour, writers turned the
story of a vicious murderer into a Wild West legend.

Collect your composition book and begin immediately. Composing ragtime piano pieces was Scott Joplin's
special talent. The most popular scholarship, paying full tuition for
the six-year program, is granted to ten students a year. week seven - 4/5 October 2011 more -ing's *Copy the two sentences below exactly as they appear. Decide
whether each sentence contains a PrPP, a G-S, or a G-O. Identify
the descriptive phrase / word appropriately.
HINT: only two of the three types will be used! After establishing academies of dance, the country's
minister for cultural affairs created scholarship
opportunities for talented children.

Collect your composition book and begin immediately. week 7 Portraying Billy the Kid as the Robin Hood of the frontier
became common with dime-novel authors of the day. week seven - 6/7 October 2011 more -ing's *Copy the sentence below exactly as it appears. Analyze the sentence
for any examples of PrPP, PaPP, G-S, and G-O. Identify
the descriptive phrase / word appropriately. HINT: you should find
more than one, but fewer than four. Pip, turning away from the Temple Gate as soon as he
had read the warning, made his way to Fleet Street,
where he obtained a carriage and drove to Covent
Garden.

Collect your composition book and begin immediately. now for something * unscramble the sentence and write it out, punctuating it correctly being white with fear the boy his face stares into space week eight - 12/13 October -ly new ABSOLUTE week 8 } The -ings; distinguishing participial phrases
from other -ing words (gerunds); recognizing PrPPs
and PaPPs as descriptive phrases PrPP > PaPP > G-S > G-O > finding controlling verbs } Lends itself to introducing controlling verbs and subject-verb relationships imitations... Study the parts of the sentence below. Then write an original sentence
that IMITATES the structure of the sample. In your sentence, identify a
PrPP and an ABS by underlining, labeling, and drawing arrows. Waiting patiently
in the front office,
Tony shut his eyes
for a moment,
his head resting
against his clenched fist. week nine - 18/19 October week 9 factoring, showing - not telling, and the ABS Copy the sentences below into your composition book.
Alter the first sentence to create an ABS phrase
Factor the word "pet"; choose one other word from the sentences to factor as well.
Finally, finish the exercise by combining the ABS and the second sentence. Her pet was lying in the corner.
Cathy read from a book. week nine - 20/21 October imitations... Study the parts of the sentence below. Then write an original sentence
that IMITATES the structure of the sample. In your sentence, identify
an ABS by underlining, labeling, and drawing an arrow. week 10 Angela gently balanced her half-eaten apple
on the counter
next to the toaster,
its once pale flesh slowly turning brown. deconstruction, reconstruction Copy the sentence below in your composition book, exactly as it appears.
Highlight or draw a box around any examples of concrete nouns, visual verbs, factored words, descriptive phrases (PrPP, PaPP, ABS), or examples of imagery.
Finally, re-write the sentence, removing concrete nouns, adjectives, and visual verbs and replace them with language that “tells” and makes it difficult for the reader to “see.”
Timmy hesitantly lifted his once-bitten Spiderman ice cream off the warm asphalt next to the stagnant mud puddle, its once creamy texture now a muddy soup. sentence of the WEEK! Brian Romero week ten - october week ten - october imitations... Study the parts of the sentence below. Then write an original sentence that IMITATES the structure of the sample. In your sentence, identify a PrPP by underlining, labeling, and drawing an arrow. The autumn flowers were decaying,
and their smell drifted
through every room of our house,
speaking softly the names of our dead. week 11 developing characters: dialogue Copy the beginnings of a dialogue presented below. Then bring the CONFLICT to a resolution by SHOWING, FACTORING, and adding more DIALOGUE. "I can't walk, Brother," he said.
"Who says so?" I demanded
"Mama, the doctor - everybody."
"Oh, you can walk," I said, and I } Start by copying this. Remember to indent whenever the speaker changes. from this point, you'll use your knowledge of SHOWING, FACTORING, and DIALOGUE to RESOLVE the conflict.
Mind your punctuation, spelling, and formatting. These will be presented with the document camera. imitations with DIALOGUE! Study the parts of the sentence below. Then write an original sentence that IMITATES the structure of the sample. Occasionally I too became discouraged
because it didn't seem
as if he was trying,
and I would ask,
"Doodle, don't you want to learn to walk?" week 12 showing... Using visual verbs, concrete nouns, factored ideas, descriptive phrases (PrPP, PaPP, G-S, G-O), and an intimate point of view, SHOW the following idea: At night he didn't sleep well. 4: I can do it without help and I can make connections to other learning.
3: I can do it without help.
2: I get the idea, but I need help to do it correctly.
1: I cannot do it on my own. I struggle even with help. imitations - repeat-word modifier Study the parts of the sentence below. Then write an original sentence that IMITATES the structure of the sample. We never spoke,
but I knew
he was watching me,
watching for a sign of mercy. week 13 use the character you began creating Monday as your subject showing, not telling Today is your character's first day at a new school or new job. Decide whether he / she is shy and anxious or confident and arrogant. Then,

Using visual verbs, concrete nouns, factored ideas, descriptive phrases (PrPP, PaPP, G-S, G-O), and an intimate point of view, SHOW the following idea:

He/She was (anxious or arrogant). Use at least one repeat-word modifier. 4
3
2
1 imitations - repeat-word modifier Study the parts of the sentence below. Then write an original sentence that IMITATES the structure of the sample. He was sitting
on the ground,
his face buried
in his arms,
arms that were resting
on his drawn-up knees. use your character as your subject week 14 Your character has just walked into an empty room.



showing, not telling - focus on place Show how your character feels emotionally by describing the room. Use at least one repeat-word modifier. Do NOT make any reference to your character,
by name or by pronoun. Focus on the ROOM. What are some places - think of rooms
inside of buildings - that have strong
associations?

What aspects of those rooms would you describe to make a reader feel those associations? begin over here storytelling... week 15 Write a story about the
danger of hatred. Today: copy the plot pyramid. Determine your
conflict (general and specific) and resolution.
Identify a setting (time and place) for your story.
Begin composing a 55-fiction rough draft. storytelling... Write a story about the
danger of hatred. Look back over your plot diagram for an original story about
the danger of hatred. Decide upon a denouement - a final
moment of clarity at which the character realizes he or she
has learned something (about hatred).

Write a draft of your complete story using 55 words or fewer. storytelling... Write a story about the
danger of hatred. Today, you will have 26 lines on which to tell your story about the danger of hatred. Look over the scoring rubric on your desk and think about the differences between a satisfactory story and an accomplished story. week 16 { This is the model for approaching the Literary Essay. First attempt took too long to execute and occured too late in the year. showing isn't just for stories. Copy the following sentence into your composition book: The narrator was showing Doodle his casket when he said "I'll leave you here by yourself" because the narrator wanted Doodle to leave him alone. Write the sentence again, but this time try to SHOW (rather then tell) the section highlighted in green. Applying the concept of showing to expository text. Logic glue...that is a 'that is' sentence is useful for defining or clarifying an idea from the previous sentence. Copy the following in your composition book:

High school shouldn't just be about academics, students also need to be involved in the school community. week 17 Logic glue...that is a 'that is' sentence is useful for defining or clarifying an idea from the previous sentence. Now try it on your own:

Every student should perform some kind of service to his or her community before graduating. underline the idea that we could clarify or define. underline the idea that we could clarify or define.
compose your own 'that is' sentence. Logic glue...that is Read the article "Let's can the food drives" and follow our paragraphing technique to compose a three-sentence analytical paragraph with the following logic glue: 1. topic sentence
2. that is
3. for example Your prompt:
In "Let's can the food drives" how do the writers attempt to change people's approach to serving their communities? Your evidence chart should have three examples. You'll only use one. Logic glue...that is a 'that is' sentence is useful for defining or clarifying an idea from the previous sentence. Copy the topic sentence below in your composition book. Then finish the 'that is' sentence that follows to clarify the highlighted idea. week 21 In "Helicopter Tragedy and the Dread of 'The Knock'," the writer's anecdote contrasts her conflicting feelings of worry and relief to create a sense of sympathy in the reader. The reader... a 'that is' sentence is useful for defining or clarifying an idea from the previous sentence. Copy the topic sentence below in your composition book. Complete the topuic sentence with your own idea. Then compose a "that is" sentence to follow. The author of "Chopper tragedy and the dread of the knock" is similar to Odysseus' wife Penelope because _____________. week 22 Topic. That is. Respond to the question below by writing two sentences: 1. a topic sentence that answers the question, and 2. a 'that is' sentence that clarifies some idea from your topic sentence. How does Penelope's experience differ from that of the author of "Chopper Tragedy"? week 23 "I shall sit at home and rock" Penelope waits for her husband's return. Penelope does not have the freedom that her husband does. Quote Actions /
Emotions Why? prove it! Combine the information in the evidence chart to form one great sentence. Then, add your evidence to last week's topic sentence-that is combination. "Reaches his hand and wipes a tear from Penny's cheek" Otis tells Penny he is ending their relationship. Otis loves Penny but feels that he can't take care of her. Quote Actions / Emotions Why? The stage directions for "Lost" create a sense of conflict within the character of Otis. [add a "that is"] Copy the topic sentence. Then, create a "that is" sentence and combine the evidence columns to create ONE "for example" sentence. a three-sentence paragraph topic sentence: week 24 "he clutched at my companions [...] and made [them] his meal" Quote Actions / Emotions Why? The Cyclop's brutal treatment of Odysseus and his men demonstrate that he is uncivilized. [add a "that is"] Copy the topic sentence. Then, create a "that is" sentence to clarify. Complete the evidence columns and combine the columns to create ONE "for example" sentence. topic sentence: a three-sentence paragraph 3 sentences! Saturday School Miss Maudie hated her house: time spent indoors was time wasted. She was a widow, a chameleon lady who worked in her flower beds in an old straw hat and men's coveralls, but after her five o' clock bath she would appear on the porch and reign over the street in magesterial beauty.

She loved everything that grew in God's earth, even the weeds. With one exception. If she found a blade of nut grass in her yard it was like the Second Battle of the Marne: she swooped down upon it with a tin tub and subjected it to blasts from beneath with a poisonous substance she said was so powerful it'd kill us all if we didn't stand out of the way. What do you learn about Miss Maudie from this excerpt? It was in the spring of his thirty-fifth year that father married my mother, then a county school-teacher, and in the following spring I came wriggling and crying into the world. Something happened to the two people. They became ambitious. The American passion for getting up in the world took possession of them.

It may have been that mother was responsible. Being a school-teacher she had no doubt read books and magazines. She had, I presume, read of how Garfield, Lincoln, and other Americans rose from poverty to fame and greatness, and as I lay beside her ... she may have dreamed that I would some day rule men and cities. At any rate she induced father to give up his place as a farmhand, sell his horse, and embark on an independent enterprise of his own ... For herself she wanted nothing. For father and myself she was incurably ambitious. How does the narrator's birth change his parents? In fifth grade, when girls were wearing straight shifts with buttons down the front, I wore pastel shirtwaists with cap sleeves and a multitude of built-in petticoats. My black lace-up oxfords, which my parents perceived to have orthopedic value, carried their own weight in the spectacle. I suspected people noticed, and I knew it for sure on the day Billy Stamps announced to the lunch line: "Make way for the Bride of Frankenstein." What do you learn about the narrator from her own description of how she dresses? I was half afraid. However, the only thing to be done being to knock at the door, I knocked, and was told from within to enter. I entered, therefore, and found myself in a pretty large room, well lighted with candles. No glimpse of daylight was to be seen in it. It was a dressing-room, as I supposed from the furniture, though much of it was of forms and uses then quite unknown to me. But prominent in it was a draped table with a gilded looking-glass, and that I made out at first to be a fine lady's dressing-table.

Whether I should have made out this object so soon, if there had been no fine lady sitting at it, I cannot say. In an arm-chair, with an elbow resting on the table and her head leaning on that hand, sat the strangest lady I have ever seen, or shall ever see. How do you think this scene would be different if the lady were the narrator? I walked into the room and stood within arm's reach of Marie. I knew I needed to speak to her, but I was hesitant. Our eyes finally met and I said Hey. She replied with a forced smile and replied Hey yourself, stranger! It's been awhile. I know, I said, I've been meaning to call. Rewrite the dialog below with correct punctuation and formatting. week 25
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