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FNH 250 Controversy Project: Juicing Diets

Marissa Bejar, Rosalyn Desa, Andrea Eisma, Victoria Janzen, Eden Lee, Aninder Sarai
by

Rosalyn Desa

on 19 March 2015

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Transcript of FNH 250 Controversy Project: Juicing Diets

What is the Controversy?

Juice cleanses deny the body of certain key nutrients, while also providing higher levels of other nutrients that could potentially lead to various health disorders.
ii. Juicing Diets and Dietary Fiber
• The majority of juicing diet require that plants and fruits be transformed from solid to a liquid

• Dietary fiber is the portion of solid foods that contains: polysaccharides, lignin and oligosaccharides (resistant starch)

• Anderson et al. discusses benefits of higher fiber intake with respects to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and gastrointestinal function

Oxalate Nephropathy Due To 'Juicing'
The precipitation of calcium oxalate in the kidneys

What health risks are associated with it?
• Acute renal failure

• Kidney stones

• Hyperoxaluria (excessive urinary excretion of oxalate)

i. Juicing Diets and Weight Regulation


• A tree sap-based supplement with lemon juice, chili powder and water
• Fasting diet for full seven days (no other food consumed)
• Weight loss is mostly water and carbohydrate stores-These will be rapidly regained once the detox is finished

Juice Cleansing
FNH 250 Controversy Project

1) Control Group (CON): Control diet supplemented with saline
2) High Fat (HF): 45% High Fat diet supplemented with saline
3) High Fat + Green Pepper Juice(HF+GP): 45% high-fat diet supplemented with green pepper juice.

The three groups had similar body weights at the beginning of the study.

Green pepper juice seems to be a healthful vegetable beverage for decreasing weight gain by regulating the levels of serum lipids

This is only true when a regular healthy diet is also consumed with the juice

Therefore, juice cleansing is only an additional way to ensure the consumption of a healthy, balanced diet

Why do you need to worry about this while juicing?
• Fruits and vegetables high in oxalate include beets, swiss chard, kiwi, spinach, etc.

• BluePrint Cleanse - juices commonly contain the fruits and vegetables high in oxalate.
The Importance of Calcium While Juicing
Marissa Bejar, Rosalyn Desa, Andrea Eisma,
Victoria Janzen, Eden Lee, Aninder Sarai
Cardiovascular Disease and Dietary Fiber
Calcium must be consumed in order to reduce the body’s ability to absorb oxalate:

Packaged juice cleanses do not provide significant amounts of calcium
1. Lemon Detox
After 60 days :
The feed-gain ratio =
weight gain/food intake
• Seven group studies were reviewed in this paper which indicated that over 158,000 individuals with a higher intake of fiber had a 29% lower prevalence of CHD

• 26% reduction in stroke prevalence was also seen in individuals with higher dietary fiber intake

• RCT’s (randomized control trials) are needed to further gain evidence
Diabetes and Dietary Fiber
Gastrointestinal Function and Dietary Fiber
• High intake of fiber reduces the risk of: inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), diverticulitis, prevent constipation, hemorrhoids, appendicitis, and colorectal cancer.

• In small intestine fiber can bind to bile that prevents the formation of micelles which leads to release of more feces and cholesterol from the body

• 13 group studies over 20 years found that from 725,000 individuals, those with the highest level of fiber intake had 6% reduction in development of colorectal cancer
Summary
Future Research
There is conflicting evidence on whether fruit juice consumption causes weight gain or loss, or contributes to obesity or high BMI

One study by O’Neil and Nicklas (2006) found that 100% fruit juice consumption was correlated with better nutrient consumption but was not associated with weight status

Tam et al. (2006) found an association between fruit juice consumption and higher BMI among australian children

This research did not acknowledge any co-founding factors of weight loss. Therefore, cannot pin higher BMI just on fruit juice consumption


Future Research
•Nicklas et al. found that children who consume more fruit juices (over 170 ml daily) have higher nutrient consumption of total carbohydrate, vitamins C and B6, folate, potassium

Children also had lower saturated fat and added sugar consumption and ate more fruits and veggies as a whole

But study didn’t report any association with socio-economic status so cannot conclude that drinking juice caused healthy lifestyle


Encourages healthier food choices and healthier lifestyle

Toxins are built up in the body and that juice cleanses will help the body remove impurities

It restores balance to the body, can help with digestion and reduce inflammation
Supporters argue that...
Opponents argue that...
The human body alone is an excellent detoxifier
ie. liver

"Detox programs" are marketing tools

Influenced heavily by social media and part of "fad diets"
ie. Celebrities' usage
Why do we care?
Thank you!
Any Questions?
• Diabetes is more prevalent when larger sums of fat are consumed which replaces an adequate amount of dietary fiber

• Five group studies revealed that when examining 427,000 individuals that had higher intake levels of whole grain or cereal fiber there was a 29% reduction in diabetes development

• RCT conducted in Finland over four years showed a 62% reduction in the progession of pre-diabetes or diabetes

• Increased insulin-sensitivity is seen with higher dietary fiber intake; small amount of insulin is needed to keep blood-glucose level optimal


Future Research
• Initially looked into the Master Cleanse but there was not enough literature available

• The Master Cleanse is widely popular among celebrities

• The influence of celebrities, social media, and popular magazines on the use of juice diets/cleanses can be further researched
Oxalate Nephropathy Due to 'Juicing'
Juice diets are high in oxalate which is a well known nephrotoxin and lacks adequate calcium to inhibit negative effects of oxalate
Health Benefits of Dietary Fiber
Dietary fiber has positive effects on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal health and diabetes
Juicing may take out dietary fibre from the diet
Weight loss/gain
Juicing diets like the Lemon and Green Pepper Detox may be a short term solution for weight loss
For a prolonged period of time, its negative effects on the body far outweigh the temporary weight loss it may provide.
2. Green Pepper juice
Capsicum annuum L.
(Scientific Name for green pepper)
Health Benefits of Dietary FibeR
(Anderson et al. 2009)
(Getting et al., 2013)
iii. Juicing Diets and Oxalate Nephropathy
Social Media
Fruit Juice and Healthy Lifestyle
Weight Loss Across Populations
(Crowe, 2010)
(Kim and Park, 2015)
Anderson, J., Baird, P., Davis Jr, R., Ferreri, S., Knudtson, M., Koraym, A. Williams, C. (2009). Health benefits of dietary fiber. Nutrition Reviews, 67(4), 188-205.

Caswell, H. (2009). The role of fruit juice in the diet: An overview. Nutrition Bulletin, 34(3), 273-288.

Crowe, T. (2010). Diets, weight loss and detox diets. Nutridate, 21(1).

Getting, J., Gregoire, J., Phul, A., Kasten, M. (2013). Oxalate Nephropathy Due to ‘Juicing’: Case Report and Review. The American Journal of Medicine, 126(9), 768-772.

Kim, N., Park, S. (2015). Evaluation of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) juice on the weight gain and changes in lipid profile in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 95(1), 79-87.

Lien, Y. (2013). Juicing Is Not All Juicy. The American Journal of Medicine, 126(9), 755-756.

References
Take-Home Message
(The Juice Truck: why cleanse?)
Juice cleanses lack in essential nutrients needed to maintain health
Juice cleanses consumed over a an extensive duration of time can lead to oxalate nephropathy, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and kidney dysfunction
It is important to consume a balanced diet that includes foods from all food groups to provide the nutrient needed for overall well being
Full transcript