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Copy of Desktop CV (template source)

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Anjie Ramnarine

on 29 March 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Desktop CV (template source)

What ?
Who ?
Concluding remarks
What, When, Why and
How ?

References and Activity
Anjanie Ramnarine
Who is Alan Kay ? :
Children's Technology Review. (2009, December 21). Alan Kay's Dynabook - Rare NHK video [video file]. Retieved from http : //www.youtube.com/watch?v=r36NNGzNvjo
Alan Kay (1940 - ) is an American computer scientist who is known for the technological inventions such as :
* the concept of personal computing
* the laptop computer
* the overlapping-window interface
[Graphical User Interface - GUI]
* object-oriented programming

In a Time Magazine interview, conducted in 2013, Kay is referred to as being a 'visionary',
while the Computer History Museum, refers to Kay as a major contributor in the domain of Information Technology (IT) for the aforementioned innovations [the personal computer, and human interface], and for being a co-founder of Xerox PARC.

In 1968, Alan Kay began development on the first form of a tablet-laptop computing device, that would be book-sized, and could replace paper (Ryan, 1991).

Kay believed that a book-sized computer could be very useful in teaching children foundation subjects such as math, language, and geography, thus Kay created a model laptop computer, which became a precursor to his "KiddiKomp" device, designed in 1970 (Johnstone, 2003).

The Dynabook by Alan Kay

The Dynabook
by Alan Kay

EDU5287 : Emerging Technologies
and Learning
Tech Talk Presentation
What is the Dynabook?
Pictures and Video
Impact and Influence on Society
Image source :
Model of the Dynabook
Image source :
A Dynabook as illustrated in Kay's (1972) paper
Image Source:
Facts and Specs

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION : A thin portable, personal computer, that is highly dynamic


WEIGHT : 1 kg (2lbs) or just under 4lbs [lighter than a textbook, heavier than a notebook]

HARDWARE : consisted of an integrated physical or touchscreen keyboard and elements of a Graphic User Interface, with a standalone “small terminal” utilizing processor chips for memory storage (removable local file storage), input devices (typewriter keyboard, voice commands and a mouse), a display (either CRT or Plasma that could cover the whole notebook, with a keyboard that appears upon pressure of touch), two cassette drives or floppy drives (for learning material), and rechargeable batteries (for the portable device).

THE INTERIM DYNABOOK - PROTOTYPE [MADE IN 1972] : The mockup device was made of wood, contained ideas for screen interaction, and was built upon an object-oriented programming language and software component named Smalltalk.
The Smalltalk communication system and operating software allowed the device to to act as problem solving tool, a text editor, and medium for expression through drawing, painting, music composition, and even digital game creation.

INTERESTING FACT : Nicknamed the ‘Children’s Computer’ due to being developed as a learning tool, and later served as a model for the 1970s portable computer, also by Kay, called the KiddiKomp

MAIN PURPOSE : To create an interactive, dynamic instrument that children could use by connecting to remote servers which could access text and graphics for schoolwork. Quoted as a “service conception” by Kay, that allowed Artificial Intelligence to be combined and developed with the overlapping windows, icons, and GUI, to become a “helpful agent” in learning.

In an article written by Alan Kay and Adele Goldberg (1977). Kay describes his vision of what the Dynabook would be,
"enough power to outrace your senses of sight and hearing, enough capacity to store for later retrieval thousands of page-equivalents of reference material, poems, letter, recipes, records, drawings, animations, musical scores, waveforms, dynamic simulations, and anything else you would like to remember and change…” (p.31).

However, at the time of conception, the Dynabook was not picked up due to lack of financial investment as businesses thought the product would have “no use” in society, and was too bizarre and radical for the IT market in 1970-1980 (Maxwell, 2006).
An Educational Tool

Perez, Ricardo. (2012, June 2).
Alan Kay - Education in the digital age
. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http: //www.youtube.com/watch?v=GAuIEN-JQ-Y#t=547
mage source :
Goals for the Dynabook in Education (Kay, 1972) :
1) to provide coherent, powerful examples of the use of the Dynabook in and across subject areas;
2) to study how the Dynabook can be used to help expand a person’s visual and auditory skills;
3) provide exceptional freedom of access so kids can spend a lot of time probing for details, searching for a personal key to understanding processes they use daily; and
4) to study the unanticipated use of the Dynabook and
Smalltalk by children in all age groups.

Intended for learners, its purpose was to enhance the intellect of children (and adults) through use of a personal, portable computer to create dynamic books : “…books that converse, books that weave together words, sounds, and images ; books that enable children to become authors of music and animation. A Dynabook is not simply a means of displaying print on screen, but a new medium with the power to adapt to a reader’s needs and interests, to remove the barriers between reading and writing, to share knowledge, and to create an interaction of words, sounds, and images.” (Kay and Goldberg, 1977).
The creation of the Dynabook was heavily influenced by the works of cognitive and developmental psychologists Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, and Lev Vygotsky. Based on theories that conclude children learned best through operational and sequential stages of progression from images and configurations to use of symbolic and abstract representations, Alan Kay was motivated to include heavier graphics and animation in the operating software Smalltalk.

The Dynabook was meant to make learning more active than passive, and provide students with a learning environment that was highly creative. Alan Kay realized early on how Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) could help students learn, and develop fundamental skills through collaborative, interactive tasks. The technology of the Dynabook can maintain and the attention of the child, allowing them to learn through entertainment, in a manner that is representative of their particular learning styles.
Thus, the child is in control of their own learning experiences, by constructing meaning to the content.

The educational theories that influenced the Dynabook are :
Cognitive and developmental learning theories by Piaget, Bruner, and Vgotsky; and Instructional theories found in Constructivism by John Dewey and Maria Montessori, such as Experiential, Hands-on, Task-based, Project-based, and Discovery learning.

The Dynabook in Education : Pedagogies and Theories
Specific Uses for Dynabooks in Education :
- showing complex historical inter-relationships
- mathematics could become a living language
- laboratory experiments and simulations could be demonstrated, thus reducing costs, preparation time, and difficulty levels
- prose and poetry works could be edited and filed
The Dynabook concept is considered as a precursor and major influence on current laptops, tablet computers and E-books. Because the Dynabook was conceived as an educational platform, Kay is considered to be a pioneer in mobile learning, and indeed, many features of the Dynabook concept have been adopted in the design of the One Laptop Per Child educational platform, with which Kay is actively involved.

In terms of being a precursor to tablets, laptops, and eBooks, specifically speaking the products that show obvious influences by Alan Kay's Dynabook are : the iPad, Windows Surface, NoteBooks/Netbooks, LeapPad, and Kindle or Kobo e-readers,
*An interesting fact : Alan Kay was a fellow at both Apple and Disney, working in the Research and Development Department.
*Another interesting fact : Steve Jobs and a team of Apple researchers visited Xerox PARC and Alan Kay in 1979, approximately 5 years before the Lisa and MacIntosh computing systems were released in 1984 (Greelish, 2013).

Activity :

This activity requires a tablet device [Surface, Playbook, iPad, or even LeapPad].

Using your tablet, examine the hardware of the device. Make note of any similarities it has to the Dynabook such as weight, material, screen size, and the use of the GUI.

After turning your device on, search for a 'free' educational software and download it. If your tablet comes equipped with an educational game, you can use that. Play the game for a few minutes and make note of the amount of educational content it actually contains, and whether the results of the educational game can be saved and shared.

Once finished, respond to this question : Do you think the tablets of today are more useful in classrooms for students in early childhood education programs ?
If so, why ? If not, why ? The Dynabook would be equipped with curriculum for foundation courses as developed by the country and Ministry of Education, do you find your tablet to be equipped with curricula from any of our provinces ?
If you were developing a software for Dynabooks, what would you create to be used in classrooms for decades to come ?

Children's Technology Review. (2009, Dec 21). Alan Kay's Dynabook - Rare NHK video. Available at

Computer History. (2014). Hall of Fellows - Alan Kay. Available at
http:/ www.computerhistory.org/fellowawards/hall/ bios/Alan,Kay/

Greelish, D. (2013 April 2). An Interview with Computing Pioneer Alan Kay. TIME. Accessed on March 19, 2014 from

History of Computers and Computing, and Internet. (2014). Birth of the Modern Computer, Personal Computer, The
Dynabook of Alan Kay. Accessed on March 14, 2014 from http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Personal/Dynabook.html

Johnstone, B. (2003). Never Mind the Laptops: Kids, Computers and the Transformation of Learning. iUniverse : 351

Kay, A.C. (1972). A Personal Computer for Children of All Ages. Proceedings of the ACM National Conference, Boston,
Aug.1972. Downloaded from http://www.mprove.de/diplom/gui/kay72.html

Kay, A. and Goldberg, A. (1977). Personal Dynamic Media. Computer 10(3): 31-41.
Downloaded from http://www.newmediareader.com/book_samples/nmr-26-kay.pdf

Johnstone, B. (2003). Never Mind the Laptops: Kids, Computers and the Transformation of Learning. iUniverse : 351

Maxwell, J.W. (2006). Tracing The Dynabook: A Study of Techocultural Transformations. [thesis]
University of British Columbia. Accessed on February 27, 2014 from

Perez, Ricardo. (2012, June 2). Alan Kay - Education in the digital age. Available at

Ryan, Bob. (1991). "Dynabook Revisited with Alan Kay". Byte. Vol. 16, February 1991.
For your viewing pleasure, here is another video on Alan Kay, and Technology in Education.

Archivd.(2010, March 19). Alan Kay on Learning and Computer Science. Available at
Full transcript