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Growth and Development
Transcript of Growth and Development
think abstractly about hypothetical possibilities
Formal operational stage (Piaget, 1971 cited in
Moral development (Kohlberg, 1984)
become attuned to societal flaws and contradictions
develop moral values to guide their lives
Storm & Stress
Stanley G. Hall 's Biogenetic Psychology of Adolescence
G. Stanley Hall
Otto Rank's Emphasis on the Adolescent Need for Independence
Kurt Lewin: Field Theory and Adolescence
Growth and Development
Unsafe Sexual Practice
Mental Health Disorders
Anxiety; Generalized, Social Phobia, Agoraphobia
Eating Disorder; Anorexia, Bulimia, Binge
Borderline Personality Disorder
Paul Ankobea- Kokroe, Eniola Onagoruwa, Jodi Van Egmond
Unsafe Sexual Practices
Second leading cause of death in adolescent women
Adolescence begins at age 12 and ends between 22-25 years of age
"Strum und Drang" = Storm and Stress
Experience a multitude of emotions during this stage
Have a desire to find role models that reject the norms of society
Statistics Canada (2008): 30,948 under 20
Mothers quality of life
Babies quality of life
"Why did this have to happen to me? I'm so young" -feeling stressed
Why not? ignorance, partner unwillingness, inability to acquire, don't care
Statistics Canada (2005): 43% of adolescents have had at least one instance of sexual intercourse
(2005) 25% reported not to have used a condom the last time they had sex
US Study: 10% of sexually active adolescents get pregnant
50% of those people did not use a condom
The shift from dependence to independence
As adolescence progresses, the "will" grows stronger
The adolescent will reject any authority not of their own choosing
Establishing and maintaining the "will" is a difficult but necessary developmental task for the adolescent
● Key features of the age group
● Developmental theorist related to age group
● Health risks and concerns of the age group
● Communication strategies
● Questions and answers
● Stanley Hall identified Storm & Stress and named it Adolescent (Mint, 2004)
● What is adolescent?
– Between childhood and adulthood
– Begins at the onset of
puberty (11-13 years) and
ends around 18-21 years (Driessnack, 2002).
– hormonal and physical changes by which children become sexually mature human beings.
Characterized by rapid change:
Key features of adolescence
Primary sexual characteristics
examples menarche (onset of menstruation), growth of penis
Secondary sexual characteristics
example voice change, breast development
More emotional than any other group (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Larson 1984, cited in Belsky, 2010).
adolescent egocentrism (Elkind, 1978)
personal fable (feel special and heroic)
More prone to taking risks than any other group
Push for autonomy (conflict with parents intense)
Group identity (self esteem and acceptance)
2 million and still increasing most in developing countries
STIs hard to measure
Mental Health Disorders
"Half of all mental health disorders in adulthood appear to start by 14, but most cases are undetected and untreated" (WHO, 2014)
But what does reckless behaviour mean?
Risk taking: serious consequences, and in the moment
sex without contraception
drinking alcohol and driving
illegal substance abuse
delinquency and crime
Recklessness: thrill seeking, precautions not taken
Why are you blaming us?
Your just stereotyping us,
almost every age group does
be there at 9 sharp!
byeee <3 <3
idk... i just dont think its a good idea
come on everyones doing it!!! dont be a loser
9? kk seeya there :/
<3<3 knew i could count on yaa
Confidentiality and minor rules
Icebreakers- focus on them, not yet family and friends
Short Questions- effective as some have been forced
Include them in decision making (formal operational level)
Stay positive: risk of low self esteem
Silent Periods- not effective
Non Verbal Communication- very sensitive to
Sensitivity- criticism means withdraw
Stay in character
Don't make assumptions
Arnett, J. (1992). Reckless behaviour in adolescence: A developmental perspective. Academic Press. Inc.
Balakas, K. & Solberg, M.S. (2010). Conception through adolescence. In J.C. Ross-Kerr & A
Wood, M. J. Canadian fundamentals of nursing (Revised 4th Ed., pp. 114-131). Toronto, ON: Mosby: Elsevier.
Belsky, J. (2010). Experiencing the lifespan. Middle Tennessee State University: Worth Publishers.
Chacko, M. R. (2014). Pregnancy in adolescents. Retrieved from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/ pregnancy-in-adolescents?source=search_result&search=adolescents+and+pregnancy&selectedTitle=1%7E150
Crockett, L. J., & Peterson, A.C. (1993). Adolescent development: health risks and opportunities for health promotion. In S. G. Millstein & A. C. Peterson & E. O. Nightingale (Eds.),
Promoting the health of adolescents: New directions for the twenty-first century
(pp. 13-17). New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc. Retrieved from: http://books.google.ca/books?id=nl3hwg3_T10C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
Driessnack, M. (2006). Adolescence. In E. Mandle, Health Promotion: Throughout the lifespan (6th Ed., pp. 502-522).
Kazdin, A. E. (1993). Adolescent mental health: Prevention and treatmen programs. American psychologist, 2, 127-141. New Haven: American Psychological Association. doi: http://dx.doi.org.libaccess.lib.mcmaster.ca/10.1037/0003-066X.48.2.127
Menken, J. (1972). The heath and social consequences of teenage childbearing. Family planner perspectives, 4(3), 43-53. doi: 10.2307/2133938
Ravelli, B., Webber, M., Patterson, J. (2011). Sociology for everyone. (pp.96-127). Toronto, ON: Pearson.
Rotermann, M., Langlois, K. A., Severini, A., Totten, S. (2013). Prevalence of chlamydia trahomatis and herpes simlex virus type2: Results from the 2009 to 2011 canadian health measures survey. Retrieved from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-003-x/2013004/article/11777-eng.htm
Statistics Canada. (2005). Pregnancy outcomes by age grp. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/101/cst01/hlth65a-eng.htm
Wasserman, D., Cheng, Q., Jiang, G. (2005). Global suicide rates among yung people aged 15-19. World psychiatry 4(2), 114-120. World Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from http://www.ncb.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1414751/
World Health Organization. (2014, May). Adolescents: Health risks and solutions. Retrieved from http://www.wo.int/medicentre/factsheets/fs345/en/
Have you ever ridden in a
by someone or yourself drunk/ high?
do you ever use any of those substances to
feel better, or fit in?
Do you ever use alcohol or drugs while by yourself,
ask you to cut down on your intake?
Do you ever
things while using alcohol or drugs?
Have you gotten into
while using alcohol or drugs?
Reif & Elster (1998)
Home & Health
Activities, Aspirations, Affiliations
Suicide, self image, depression
As nurses we should have a thorough understanding of the physical and psychosocial growth and development which are key to:
establishing effective therapeutic communication
devising adolescent health promotion strategies.
Adolescents must change their group member ship
Don't belong to a distinct group
In between the adult group and child group
Results in power struggles
At this stage certain behaviors are no longer acceptable while others are still inaccessible
Ego - identity and identity crisis
The adolescent must establish their personal identity
Peers begin to play an important role in how the adolescent sees themselves
They place more of a focus on how they are seen in the eyes of their peers
Must separate their identity from that of their family
Must achieve ego- identity in order to move onto adult maturity
Determine their values
Must avoid the risk of identity confusion and role diffusion
@younglifexo @liflafluv @mckaylastew
"It's who we are. Doesn't matter if we've gone too far.
Doesn't matter if it's all okay. Doesn't matter if it's not our day." <3333 these people thoughh
Thank you for your time
Consider Social media. Discuss how it impacts the growth and development of the adolescent. Use ideas presented to make connections :)
How do adolescents challenges today differ from; previous time periods? Different cultures?
Preoccupied with appearance
Very self concious