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HHD UNIT 3 AOS 2 (Part 1)

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Casey Hawley

on 17 September 2015

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Transcript of HHD UNIT 3 AOS 2 (Part 1)

UNIT 3 AOS 2
PROMOTING HEALTH IN AUSTRALIA (PART 1)

KEY KNOWLEDGE/KEY SKILLS
ANALYSE models of health and health promotion including:
– Biomedical model of health
– Social model of health
– Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion;


DESCRIBE the role of
VicHealth
in promoting health including its
mission, and strategic priorities
and how it reflects the social model of health;

DESCRIBE potential
health outcomes
of a VicHealth funded project;
MODELS OF HEALTH
MODELS OF HEALTH
MISSION OF VicHealth...

In partnership with others to
PROMOTE GOOD HEALTH
Recognise that the
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
for all people influence their health
Promote
FAIRNESS AND OPPORTUNITY
for better health
Support initiatives that assist individuals, communities, workplaces and broader society to

IMPROVE WELLBEING
Seek to
PREVENT CHRONIC CONDITIONS
for all Victorians
VICHEALTH AND THE
SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH

FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE...
IDENTIFY 2 PRINCIPLES of the SOCIAL MODEL of health and explain how they are evident in the project used by VicHealth;
(4 Marks)

IDENTIFY and outline 2 potential HEALTH OUTCOMES of the VicHealth project
(2 Marks)
AREA OF STUDY 2 OUTLINE
KEY WORDS
MODELS OF HEALTH ------ >
HEALTH ----- HEALTH PROMOTION -----BIOMEDICAL ----- EPIDEMIC ----- DIAGNOSIS ----- SOCIAL MODEL ----- DETERMINANT -----SOCIAL MODEL PRINCIPLES (AREAS) ----- INEQUALITIES ----- EMPOWERMENT ----- OTTAWA CHARTER ----- ENABLE ----- MEDIATE ----- ADVOCATE ----- BUILDING HEALTHY PUBLIC POLICY ----- CREATEING SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT ----- STRENGTHENING COMMUNITY ACTION ----- DEVELOPING PERSONAL SKILLS -----REORIENTING HEALTH SERVICES ----- VICHEALTH ----- VICHEALTH MISSION ----- STRATEGIC PRIORITIES
DEFINTION OVERVIEW
HEALTH
"Health is a state of complete PHYSICAL, MENTAL and SOCIAL well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
MODELS OF HEALTH...
HEALTH PROMOTION
"Health promotion is the process of enabling people to INCREASE CONTROL over the DETERMINANTS of health and thereby IMPROVE HEALTH."
BIOMEDICAL MODEL OF HEALTH
Focuses on PHYSICAL aspect of an individual’s health
Looks at the body in ISOLATION (separately) from the environment or any social factors
PREVENTION of disease is NOT IMPORTANT.
Referred to as the ‘BAND AID’ or ‘FIX IT’ approach
RELIANACE on HOSPITALS and MEDICAL PROFESSION
Development of VACCINES, ANTIBIOTICS, SURGERY, XRAYS are CENTRAL to this model and are essential to DIAGNOSING, TREATING and CURING an INDIVIDUAL.
Still RECEIVES 90% of healthcare FUNDING in today’s society.
“Approach to healthcare that focuses on the PHYSICAL and BIOLOGICAL aspects of disease and illness, and includes the science of DIAGNOSING, CURING and TREATMENT of disease. “
PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL
Social model of health is based on the acronym :

A. R. E. A. S.
KEY POINTS...
If these determinants can be addressed, many diseases (E.g. CVD, diabetes, obesity) can be PREVENTED within the COMMUNITY.

Important emphasis on WHO definition of health

Implementing policies and education programs and providing services that PROTECT and PROMOTE health and equity are key aspects of the social model.

What are the LIMITATIONS and ADVANTAGES of the BIOMEDICAL MODEL?

Applying principles of the social model...
OTTAWA CHARTER: Priority action areas

To improve the health of populations we need to:

B
uild healthy public policy

C
reate supportive environments

S
trengthening community action

D
evelop personal skills

R
e-orient health services

“BAD CATS SMELL DEAD RATS”
SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH
DEFINITION...
“The social model of health takes into account the SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ENVIRONMENTAL and ECONOMIC determinants that AFFECT HEALTH and PRODUCE INEQUITIES within the population rather than disease of injury itself.”
Social model of health is based on the following principles:

A
ddresses the broader determinants of health
(Social, Economic, Political, Environmental)

R
educe social inequities

E
mpowers individuals and communities

A
cts to enable access to health care

inter
S
ectorial collaboration
(Education, Finance, Housing, Employment, Transport)

COMPLETE A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE 5 PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL.
PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL...
SUMMARY
Addresses the broader determinants of health

Acknowledges the influence of
Gender/Culture/Race/Ethnicity/SES/Geographical Location/Physical Environment
and the influence they can have on health status and health.

Reduce social inequities
Reducing inequalities
(E.g. Gender/Culture/Race/SES/Social Exclusion etc)
that exist in relation to the environment in order to promote physical activity and healthy lifestyles.

Empowers individuals and communities
Providing resources and skills to enable them to participate in physical activity and make appropriate decisions and give them greater control over their health.

Acts to enable access to health care
Gives individuals the right to have access to health care and information.

interSectorial collaboration
integrated action between a number of stakeholders. For example Victorian Government and NGO's working to implement a number of initiatives
PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL...
LIMITATIONS OF THE MODEL
RELIES ON PROFESSIONAL HEALTH WORKERS & TECHNOLOGY 
NARROW VIEW OF HEALTH
NOT EVERY CONDITION CAN BE TREATED
COSTLY

BIOMEDICAL MODEL...
ADVANTAGES OF THE MODEL
 ADVANCEMENT IN TECHNOLOGY
 EFFECTIVE TREATMENT
 EXTEND LIFE EXPECTANCY AND IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE
PRINCIPLES/STRATEGIES OF OTTAWA CHARTER...
The Ottawa Charter identifies THREE basic PRINCIPLES/STRATEGIES for health promotion; these are:

ENABLING
People cannot achieve their fullest health potential unless they are equally able to take control of factors that determine their health. For example enabling all men and women, the indigenous and non indegnous population within Australia.

MEDIATING
Health Promotion demands coordinated action by all concerned. For example Governments, health and other social and economic sectors, non-governmental, voluntary organisations, local authorities and the media must work together. to promote health.

ADVOCACY
Media campaigns/public speaking/conducting and publishing research and lobbying governments for policy change are all specific examples/actions of how you can ADVOCATE for health and health promotion.
OTTAWA CHARTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION
DEFINITION...
“Developed from the social model of health. It allows people to GAIN greater CONTROL over and enhance their health. Doesn’t focus on an in individual, but rather involve the POPULATION in activities in context with their own lives to PROMOTE health and PREVENT ill health.
To be healthy you need:
• Peace,
• Shelter,
• Education, • Food,
• Income,
• Stable eco-system,
• Sustainable resources
Social justice,
• Equity
OTTAWA CHARTER PREREQUISITES
OTTAWA CHARTER:
Priority action areas
D
evelop personal skills
Health promotion supports personal and social development through providing information, education for health, and enhancing life skills.
For example Health education in schools, information brochures in doctors surgeries may help individuals develop personal skills in certain areas.

R
e-orient health services
The responsibility for health promotion in health services is shared among individuals, community groups, health professionals, health service institutions and governments. They must work together towards a health care system which contributes to the pursuit of health.
For example doctors incorporating dietary advice and exercise programs from other health professionals to assist in their treatment for high blood pressure.
OTTAWA CHARTER: Priority action areas
B
uild healthy public policy
Laws, rules, regulations that leads to improvement in health.
For example smoke free workplaces, sunhats as part of school uniforms, removing taxes from healthy foods

C
reate supportive environments
Improving health by taking care of one another and our physical environment.
For example providing QUIT line, creating kids playgrounds free from hazards, provide adequate shade to allow children to play in a safe environment.

S
trengthening community action
Health promotion works only through communities working together with individuals to help set priorities, make decisions and plan and implement to achieve better health.
Combined effort between key stakeholders. For example road safety initiatives are a joint effort between government, VicRoads and the TAC.
FURTHER EXPLANATION
“Going Upstream”
A fisherman noticed a drowning person floating DOWNSTREAM and leapt into the water to rescue the person. Every time the fisherman started to fish again, another person in trouble came floating down the river crying for help.

So back into the river again. After several rescues, the fisherman decided to go UPSTREAM to see why these people were ending up in the river in the first place. Going further and further “upstream” to look for the root causes of people drowning represents increasing levels of prevention.
(McKinley 1979)
STRATEGIES THAT REFLECT THE OTTAWA CHARTER...
QUIT
 SUN SMART
Shape Up Australia
ACTIVITY
Using the 5 PRIORITY ACTION AREAS of the Ottawa charter, try and address the issue of Childhood obesity at the Secondary school level.
ACTIVITY
Use the Ottawa Charter to develop a strategy to reduce the number of car related injuries amongst the 18 - 25 year old age group.
“BAD CATS SMELL DEAD RATS”
APPLYING THE MODELS OF HEALTH
PRACTICAL EXAMPLE: Reduce the impact of CVD
Biomedical model focus:
Surgery to assist with treating the condition
Social model/Ottawa Charter:
Focus on healthy eating/physical activity to prevent the development of CVD
WHO IS VicHealth...
Established by the Victorian Government and is the peak body in Health Promotion.

ROLE OF VicHealth...
Works in partnerships with organisations, communities and individuals to ensure health is an essential part of the daily lives of individuals.

Advocate for Health Promotion through Social Media/publications/events

Funds over 800 projects a year

Distributes over 23 million annually for research and evaluation of programs

Based on the Social model of health promotion and its 5 principles
VICHEALTH STRATEGIC PRIORITIES...

1.
P
romote healthy eating
2.
E
ncourage regular physical activity
3.
P
revent tobacco use
4.
P
revent harm from alcohol
5.
I
mprove mental wellbeing
VicHealth Programs...
MOTION PROGRAM
Identify and describe two principles of the social model evident in the program.
HEALTHY SPORTING ENVIRONMENTS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

Explain how the Healthy Sporting Environment project demonstrate the Mission of VicHealth (4 Marks)
VicHealth Programs...
FITZROY STARS FOOTBALL CLUB
GENERATING EQUALITY AND RESPECT PROJECT
PRINCIPLES SUMARY...
Addresses the broader determinants of health

Acknowledges the influence of
Gender/Culture/Race/Ethnicity/SES/Geographical Location/Physical Environment
and the influence they can have on health status and health.

Reduce social inequities
Reducing inequalities
(E.g. Gender/Culture/Race/SES/Social Exclusion etc)
that exist in relation to the environment in order to promote physical activity and healthy lifestyles.

Empowers individuals and communities
Providing resources and skills to enable them to participate in physical activity and make appropriate decisions and give them greater control over their health.

Acts to enable access to health care
Gives individuals the right to have access to health care and information.

interSectorial collaboration
integrated action between a number of stakeholders. For example Victorian Government and NGO's working to implement a number of initiatives
Full transcript