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The Humanistic Curriculum
Transcript of The Humanistic Curriculum
Cognitive-children learn from responses to problems
Affective-children handle challenges on an emotional level and see failure as a learning experience
Social- provides training with cooperative and competitive groups as well as assertiveness and role training
Moral-conflicts in the class and community create learning experiences
Ego Development-self-respect and self-confidence develop without regard to ability or maturity II. Evan Keislar’s Curriculum Model for Self-Development The Four Humanistic Responses to Depersonalization of the Curriculum to Focus on Basic Skills I. Self-Directed Learning:
Achievement Motivation-hope of success motivates the learner if the task is of appropriate difficulty; fear of failure inhibits the learner if the task is either too difficult or easy.
Attributive Theory-learners see themselves as the reason for their success
Children’s Interests-self selected study of high interest topic results in focused effort Humanistic Curriculum “The humanistic Curriculum supports the American ideal of individualism, helping students discover who they are, not just shaping them into a form that has been designated in advance.” John D. McNeil Self-actualization
Relevant learning What is humanism all about? Characteristics of
the Humanistic Curriculum Purpose
Provide the learner with rewarding experiences that contribute to:
Autonomy Role of the Teacher
Listen fully to student’s views
Respect each student
Exhibit no false pretense or appearance Humanistic Curriculum took two Forms Confluence Curriculum Consciousness Curriculum Combines affective domain and cognitive domain-Starts with content and then emotional aspect is added to personal connection to what is learned.
Students acquire skills and discover self Shapiro’s elements of a confluent curriculum:
Participation-all participants are equal
Integration-thinking, feeling and action
Relevance-meaningful emotionally and intellectually
Self-the center of the learning
Goal-social purpose to develop a self-actualized individual within the larger society Mysticism
Goes beyond affective and cognitive domains to intuitive receptive (guided fantasy and mediation).
Transcendence beyond thought to arrive at the source of the thought.
Has religious implications
Puts emotional and intellectual needs of the student above that of the institution Transpersonal Techniques
Dream analysis Ready to go deeper? III. Finding the Personal in the Academic-Recognizing the limits of academic knowledge and the relevance of other forms of knowledge and internalizing or finding personal meaning of academic knowledge Literature-finding personal connections
The Arts-balance between expression and craftsmanship
Math-integrating learner’s emotions into the symbolic process
Science and Social Science –applying knowledge to meet human needs
History- recreating or role playing past events to personally involve students IV. Connecting Individual Leaning and Social Learning- Humanistic curriculum is faulted for focusing on self. Humanists continue to work on ways to combine individual and societal change by starting with the individual and then connecting to the community, country and finally the world. Philosophical Foundations Of The Humanistic Curriculum Philosophical Roots Cont.
Humanistic ideas, throughout history, conflicted with institutionalized curriculum. For example, Rousseau wrote, “Children are born good with an instinct for self-preservation and sympathy and good feelings for their companions.” This quote does well in emphasizing the ethos behind humanism. During the early 19th and 20th centuries, existentialist philosophers began to regard the individual, not society or religion, as solely responsible for bringing meaning to life. However, existentialism combines many theories and differing points of view but humanism is often referred to as the “American” existentialism because of it’s focus on the good in all of us. Classical European existentialism often focused on the negative aspects of the human condition. Behaviorism and Freudian psychology are partly rooted in existential thought. A “third force” psychology originated to address inadequacies in first (behaviorism) and second (Freudian) force psychologies.
“Third force” psychology is part of the foundation of the humanistic curriculum. “It follows that the curriculum must encourage self-actualization, allowing learners to express, act out, experiment, make mistakes, …. And discover who they are.” Third Force Psychology: A precursor to the humanistic curriculum Mikhail Csikszentmihalyi: A third force psychologist Philosophical Roots
The philosophical roots of the humanistic approach pre-date Socrates and can be seen throughout history. The Greeks envisioned education as a way to develop a well-balanced and harmonious person. This vision developed into what is commonly referred to as the “humanities or the humanistic approach.” Abraham Maslow is a key figure in the development of third force psychology.
“For Maslow, the peak experiences of awe, mystery, and wonder are both the end and the beginning of learning.”
Cognitive and personal growth should take place simultaneously. -Exhorts students to develop complexity in their consciousness, and to acquire multiple interests and abilities.
-Complexity is made up of two closely linked processes: differentiation and integration. Differentiation: when individuals feel free to pursue individual goals and to become as different as they can be from each other.
Integration: when individuals become aware of the goals of others and help them to realize their goals. Other contributing ideas to the humanistic curriculum Criticisms of the Humanistic Curriculum Carl Rogers, a third force psychologist, offered a framework for the humanistic curriculum.
Believed everyone has a natural ability to learn and wants to continue learning as long as the experience is positive.
Emphasized learning how to learn. Carl Rogers -Important to listen to an individuals perception rather than assume the cause for another’s behavior.
-Humanistic models center on motivation and emotions, including strategies for boosting self-confidence or self-efficacy. 1) Humanists fail to appropriately assess their methods and techniques in terms of consequences for learners.
2) Humanists are not concerned enough about the experience of the individual (many humanist programs enforce strict conformity practices).
3) Humanists give undue attention to the individual. Critics would like humanists to be more responsible to the needs of society as a whole. Fascinating video of Carl Rogers discussing one of his most famous interviews in "Gloria."