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Transcript of Learning Styles
Abstract Conceptualization Reflective Observation
Active Experimentation Modes for Grasping Experience Modes for Transforming Experience Howard Gardner's Frames of Mind (1983)
Multiple Intelligences Theory Spatial
Intrapersonal Neil Fleming's VARK Visual
Kinesthetic http://www.vark-learn.com Julie Coats' Generational Learning Styles (2006) Baby Boomers Generation X Millennials (Gen Y) student-directed learning opportunities
prefer books, television, movies, self-help guides, and performance evaluations independent learning opportunities
prefer demonstrations, interactive learning, and access to feedback, but on their terms highly structured, social and visual learning opportunities
prefer customized, interactive learning with immediate feedback NOTE: Low validity and reliability Gardner's words: "useful fiction" (70) NOTE: mixed empirical results;
low to moderate predictive reliability NOTE: empirically unsubstantiated If "learning styles" are unsubstantiated,
then why accommodate them? Empirical evidence suggests that "people learn new material best when they receive it multiple times and through multiple senses that use different parts of their brain" (Nilson 2010). Offering different points of access to the same course material helps students with (even undiagnosed) disabilities. Some students have underdeveloped reading/writing skills, testing skills, etc. They need additional opportunities to access course content or demonstrate competency while they improve lagging skills. The university does not provide testing.
The average student cost for testing is between $500 and $2,000.
Almost half of students with disabilities do not disclose their disabilities to the university (Betts and Dugger, 2011). Selected Bibliography Betts, Kristen and Jenny Dugger. "Universal Design & Online Learning: Ensuring Access & Engagement for All Students." Academic Impressions, 2011.
Coats, Julie. Generational Learning Styles. LEARN Books, 2006
Fleming, Neil. VARK: A Guide to Learning Styles. Neil Fleming, 2001. <http://www.vark-learn.com>
Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences; 10th Edition. Basic Books, 1993.
Kolb, David A. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Prentice Hall, 1983.
Nilson, Linda B. "The Truth about Learning Styles." Keynote at the International Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Oxford, OH, November 18-21, 2010; <http://celt.muohio.edu/lillycon/session_files/uploads/2010_no1607_Learning_Styles_Lilly_Nov_2010.pdf>
Robinson, Ken. "Bring on the Learning Revolution!" TED.com; 2010; <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r9LelXa3U_I>
Wesch, Michael. "A Vision of Students Today." Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University, 2007; <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGCJ46vyR9o> "Research in Brain Function and Learning." American Psychological Association.
http://www.apa.org/education/k12/brain-function.aspx Verbal-Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Visual-Spatial Bodily-Kinesthetic speaking
writing response papers
putting into their own words
poster making using mathematical models
playing logic games
using money sketching
making visual metaphors
making visual analogies
making visual presentations
using visual puzzles physical activities
participating in activities
changing room arrangment
cooperating in groups
going on field trips Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal playing instruments
tapping out poetic rhythms
playing background music
creating patterns group work
sharing individual study
personal goal setting
writing http://www.teachervision.fen.com/intelligence/teaching-methods/2204.html http://www.teachervision.fen.com/intelligence/teaching-methods/2204.html You are helping someone who wants to go to your airport, town centre, or railway station. You would ... A. draw or provide a map.
B. tell her the directions.
C. write the directions.
D. go with her. Which way do you prefer acquiring new information? A. on your own
B. in a group Which do you prefer? A. abstract ideas
B. concrete experience Which do you believe is more effective? A. individual learning opportunities
B. social learning opportunities Think of a course you're teaching this semester. Which do you emphasize in that course? A. abstract ideas
B. concrete data or experience Think of a course you're teaching this semester. Which learning opportunities do you offer the most in that course? A. visual learning opportunities (videos, graphs, charts, concept maps, etc.)
B. auditory learning opportunities (discussions, podcasts, audio emails, etc.)
C. reading/writing opportunities
D. kinesthetic learning opportunities (field trips, projects, repeatable online
quizzes, etc.) APSU Center for Teaching and Learning
Gray Kane, Ph.D.