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Early History of Recreation and Leisure
Transcript of Early History of Recreation and Leisure
Dates back to A.D. 80 including sports and art activities
Rec & leisure used to be a luxury that only the nobility could afford to indulge in
Religion and rec and leisure often conflict
It was effected by the Industrial Revolution
It became mainstream in the mid 19th century through the early 20th century
The three key people responsible for more modern rec and leisure are Joeseph Lee, Luther Halsey Gulick, and Jane Addams
Dated back to A.D. 80
Not much is known about rec and leisure at this time
What is known is:
Work was only done when necessary
The origin of sports can be attributed to this time
Play functioned as more then just fun in Native America
Games did more than entertain, they:
Equipped the young for adult life
taught warrior skills and how to survive
taught household skills
Recreation and Leisure in Different Ancient Socities
Recreation & Leisure
Major leisure contribution: The Sabbath
Sword and javelin fighting
Early History of Recreation and Leisure
Vestiges of warfare
Pottery, painting, and other arts
Bead and jewelry making
The game of Tlatchi
Ancient Assyria &Babylonia
First society to see play activity
as vital to mental and physical
Labor was done by slaves and
foreigners which allowed more
time for leisure
Major contribution to recreation:
Philosophy: To keep body and mind spirits strong
Marbles, stilts, bowling, skating, leapfrog, follow the leader, and other games that are still commonly played
Early Obstructions to Recreation and Leisure
In early history the need for protective walls left little space for leisurely areas
Certain leisurely activities conflicted with religious views.
Class Conflict & Leisure
Leisure was seen for only the rich who had people to do labor for them.
They were the only ones who could afford banquets, feasts, festivals, and parties everyday while commoners were forced to work.
Recreation in Colonial America
Recreation and leisure were highly influenced by the settlers who colonized the New World.
The need for survival in the new area overshadowed recreation and leisure for the beginning year
Lack of nobility and people to uphold the wealth left little opportunity to pursue the arts
Obstruction to Rec & Leisure in America
Protestant, Puritan, and Catholic Church ideals condemned activities
Activities such as gambling, card playing, dancing, feasting, theater, and other activities.
They were seen as counterproductive to work and more serious matters.
Play Attached to Work Gains Acceptance
Religions realized that they had no say in the affairs of play
Amusements became more attached to work and led to:
County fairs, market days, social gatherings with music, games, and dancing, and corn husking bees.
Park building was later put into effect inspired by the commons and greens found in New England
Types of Major Parks
Private estates of nobles/elites
Garden parks which strove to produce naturalistic effects.
Industrialization's Impact on Leisure
Industrial revolution had a major effect on the way people lived
Leisure became more widely available to people which began one of the biggest recreation movements
When the hours in the workweek were reduced from 61.9 hours in 1860 to 54.9 hours in 1910 there was more time for recreation and leisure in everyday life.
People became more involved in sports and other rapidly growing activities such as drinking and theater.
There was also a major increase in the interest of sports
Sports in the 19th Century
Horse races, foot races, wrestling matches, and shooting events had a rapidly growing fan base
Baseball also became very popular at this time, drawing crowds of 100,000 or more
Sports then expanded to tennis, archery, bowling, skating, bicycling, basketball and baseball.
College sports were initiated in the mid 19th century following the footsteps of many athletic clubs in England dating back until 1717
The first intercollegiate game was initiated in 1869
It was a football game between Rutgers and Princeton, the score was 6-4 with Rutgers getting the first victory ever in college football.
The Late 19th Century
A number of economic factors combined to promote sport and leisure interest
Rising wages and a shorter workweek allowed for more free time
Many workers began to take part in organized sports in newly developed fields and city parks
Development of National, State, and Municipal Parks
With all of the industrialization happening in the United States concerns rose about the conservation of the natural heritage of the United States
The first national conservation effort was taken in 1864 with the establishment of what is now Yellowstone Park
States soon followed this effort with trying to conserve and preserve certain areas of the state.
The first states to petition for this were Michigan and Wisconsin
The first state parks were established throughout 1864-1900
The conservation effort began taking over by storm, bringing municipal parks next
The first municipal park was Central Park in New York
Growth of Public Recreation and Park Agencies
With many national, state, and municipal parks being created, the idea of government funded recreation and leisure became widely accepted
41 cities began sponsoring public recreation programs
This number then expanded to 465 programs by 1920
Pioneers of the Recreation Movement: 20th Century
President of the playground association for 27 years
Luther Halsey Gulick
Active in YMCA in Canada
President of the Camp Fire Girls
Instrumental in the Playground Association of America in 1906
Developed programs of educational, social, and recreational activities because of her love of social
These three are responsible for shaping recreation in the United States to be similar to modern day society