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Archaic- (8,000 B.C-1,000 B.C) this was the second period of Native Americans. They started hunting smaller animals such as deer, bear, turkey, and rabbit because the bigger animals they were hunting before started beoming extinct due to climate change, and overhunting. They also invented many items such as choppers, drills, and chipping tools. This period was very nomadic too. Woodland- (1,000 B.C-1,000 A.C) this Hernando DeSoto had a very negative impact with the Native Americans. He violated the king's orders and he and his men enslaved, mutilated, and exececuted many Natives without any sensible reasoning. He was on the search for gold. DeSoto and his people took over Jekyll Island, and St. Simon's islands in 1566. SS8H1:C Standards Assignment: History was the third period of Native Americans. This group of natives started establishing permanent villages. They also started to be more artistic, they made pottery, jewlery and other artifacts, and they also invented the bow and arrow.
Mississippian-(800 A.D-1,600) this was the last period of Native Americans. They were the most technologically advanced period of Natives in history. In this time period they became more aware of agriculture and started growing a better supply of produce. SSH82 The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia's history. SS8H2: A James Oglethorpe- he was one of the 21 trustees that led the colonization in Georgia in 1732. He presented this idea to the King to give poor people and certain prisoners a chance to thrive in society. The colonization would also give Britain a chane to gain territory and build military. The king granted him permission by making the Charter of 1732. This charter provided the colonists with many rules and regulations to make a exceptional community. Some of the things this charter listed were protection of religion, trustees were not subject to payment, and people were not allowed to sell their land. Tomochichi, and Mary Musgrove were very important people that were involved in this settlement because the British were settling on Native American terriory, and Oglethorpe needed to make sure that he wasn't intruding on their land and to let the Natives know that they came in peace. One problem they had with this is that Tomochichi the Yamacraw Indian leader didn't know English, and Oglethorpe didn't know Indian, so they had to have a translator. This is where Mary Musgrove came in, because she was half native, and half white, so there for she knew both languages, and was able to translate for them. Tomochichi trusted that Oglethorpe and the colonists intended no harm and agreed to let them colonize the land. SS8H2:B Salzburgers- these were a group of german speaking protestant colonists. They founded the colony of Ebenezer, which is now Effingham County. They settled in Georgia from Austria because of religious reasons.
Highland Scotts- these people were a group of immagrants from Scotland that settled in the town of Darien along the Altahama River. They helped Oglethorpe and the colonists when it came to battles, and wars.
Malcontents- a person who is dissatisfied and rebellious
Spanish threat from Florida- A British ship was attacked by the Spanish, and this event ignitiated a war between the English and Spain. The English won the war, SS8H2:C Georgia's Trustees gave their charter back to England in 1752, and Georgia became a royal colony. As a royal colony Georgia was ruled under the King of England. Georgia didn't have such strict rules under different rule, and they began to make tons of progress. They were allowed to own land, and slaves. They also built large plantations which lead in a great advance in agriculture of rice silk, indigo, corn, peas, wheat, rye, and tobacco. King Georgia appointed a governor to represent him in Georgia, and his name was John Reynolds, and he tried to dictate Georgia, so the King appointed a new governor after only 3 years. The second governor appointed was Henry Ellis, and was a former explorer, he had to retire from being governor due to poor health. SS8H3 The student will analyze the role in the American Revolution. SS8H3: A The French and Indian War was a long term cause of the American Revolution. At the time France and Britain had both made huge empires in America, and tey were both competing to be the world's greatest power..
The French and Indian War- started because there was disagreements about land distibution of the Ohio River Valley.
Proclamation of 1763- The new king of England (King George III) wanted to avoid conflct with the natives, and refused to let the colonists settle west of the Appalachian Mountains, for the first time colonists had started to grow angry with Great Britain
Stamp Act- King George III felt that the French and Indian War had been fouht to protect the colonies so he started making the colonists pay taxes to pay off war debt.
Intolerable Acts- King Georgia got mad at the the colonists for dumping the tea at the Boston Tea Party, and decided to punish the colonists for it. He started quartering soldiers into people's homes, and making them pay for all the tea they dumped, before they could recieve any.
Declaration of Independence- this was the document signed that granted the colonists freedom from Great Britain. SS8H3: B Loyalists-these were people that were siding with Britain in the Revolutionary War.
Patriots- were people that wanted independence from Britain.
Elijah Clarke- led the Battle of kettle Creek, and helped the patriots regain control of Augusta.
Austin Dabney- was the only black soldier at the Battle of Kettle Creek. He was seriously injured. He was also granted independence in 1786.
Nancy Hart- she served as a spy at Kettle Creek. She was a patriot. She killed and captured some tories that invated her property.
Button Gwinnet- he was a plantation owner, and a merchant in Georgia. He was also the chairman that drafted Georgia's first permanent consitution in 1777.
Lyman Hall- he was a minister and doctor from New England. He was one of the three to sign the Declaration.
George Walton- was another one of the Declaration signers.
Battle of Kettle Creek- this is one of the most important battles in the American Revolution. It was fought in Georgia and was trying to prevent Britain from gaining any more control.
Siege of Savannah- in 1779, american and french forces tried to gain back control of Savannah from the British.. The attack was on October 9, and the Americans were beaten, and decreasing them by thousands of soldiers. SS8H4 The student willl describe the impact of events that led to the ratification of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights. SS8H4:A Georgia Constitution of 1777- after the colonist rided of the English control they had to make their own government. They didn't want a strong executive branch, because they didn't want another dictator to come into power. Some of the weaknesses this had was that it gave the legislative branch alot of power, the governor was determined strictly by the legistlative branch, and was in office to short of a time to be effective. Some of the stregths of the constitution were that the constitution was written down, it protected basic rights, and it had 3 seperate powers.
Articles of Confederation- the 2nd continental congress drafted this document. The people that wrote this document also wanted to avoid making a strong executive branch. This document went into effect March 1, 1781. It's strengths were that the Articles were written down, and it set up a form of government where the citizens could choose their leader. It's weaknesses were that it only created a legislative branch, it couldnt levy taxes to pay debts or soldiers, and congress could not regulate trade between the states. SS8H4:B The constitutional convention was in 1787 at the State House in Philadelphia. Delegates from all states except Rhode Island came to discuss revising the articles of Confederation. Georgia appointed 6 delegates to go to the convention, only 4 attended, and 2 stayed until the end.
Abraham Baldwin-He was one of the two that stayed until the end in the constitutional convention. He helped draft a compromise creating a bicameral legislature. This agreement was called the Great Compromise.
William Few- was the other person to stay until the end of the constitutional convention.
One of the biggest issues discussed was that a bigger state should have more votes, versus a smaller state that should have less votes.
On September 17, 1787, all the delegates signed the new United States constitution. Georgia was the 4th to ratify the state.
The reason that they wanted to make adjustments to the constitution in the first place, is that there were more weaknesses than strengths to the articles of confederation. SS8H5 The student will explain significant factors that affected the development of Georgia as part of the growth of the United States between 1789 and 1840. SS8H5:A Georgia grew rapidly after the convention. It started expanding it's education, and built a college. The college they built was the University of Georgia. It was built off of a land grant of 40,000 acres. Abraham Baldwin was the school's first president.
Louisville- this was one of Goergia's five capital cities. It was capital during 1796-1806. This city was named after King Louis XVI of France, which was an ally of the colonist in the American Revolution.
Baptist & Methodist Churches- before the revolutionary war, most Georgians attended an Anglican Church. These kind of churches demanded that everyone be loyal to the king during the war, after the war Anglican priests and the tories were forced to leave Georgia, and the ones that did not support the king switched to methodist churches,
The greatest growth in different religions were in Baptist and Methodist churches, and one of the first colonies was a black Baptist church that was established in Savannah in 1788. SS8H5:B Headright System- this was Georgia's method of land distribution until 1803. It made sure that all head of the household were allowed to receive 200 acres of land, plus 50 acres of land per family members, with a limit of 1000 acres of land. This system resulted to massive immigration in Georgia.
Land Lotteries- this is basically where land was one by playing the lottery. The land came from sizes such as 50 acres-500 acres. All free white men living in Georgia for one year were given one chance. Widows or veterans were given two chances.
Yazoo Land Fraud-Certain land distributers wanted to buy Georgia’s western territory along the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. Speculation companies bribed the General Assembly to sell them huge pieces of land for low prices, so that they could sell it to others for profit. SS8H5:C • In 1793, while visiting a plantation near Savannah, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin to quickly and easily clean cotton of its seeds. This made Georgia be the number one producer of cotton in the nation. Considering the fact that the production of cotton increased, they needed more transportation, so they started to build alot of railroads. By 1860 there were over 1200 miles of railroads in Georgia alone. SS8H5:D SS8H6 The student will analyze the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Georgia. SS8H6:A SS8H6:B SS8H6:C SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occured in Georgia between 1877 and 1918. SS8H7:A SS8H7:B SS8H7:C SS8H7:D SS8H8 The student will analyze the important events that occured after World War I and their impact on Georgia. SS8H8:A SS8H8: B SS8H8:C SS8H8:D SS8H9 The student will describe the impact of World War 2 on Georgia's development economically, socially, and politically. SS8H9:A SS8H9:B SS8H9:C SS8H9:D SS8H10 The student will evaluate key post-World War 2 developments of Georgia from 1945 to 1970. SS8H10:A SS8H10:B SS8H10:C SS8H11 The student will evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement, SS8H11:A SS8H11:B SS8H11:C SS8H12 The student will explain the importance of significant social, economic, and political developments in Georgia since 1970. SS8H12:A SS8H12:B SS8H12:C SS8H12:D SS8H12:E Removal of the Creek: Since the earliest days of the Georgia colony, the Creek and the Georgians had been friendly. After Tomochichi died, and Oglethorpe moved back to England, the relationship between whites and natives decreased.
Alexander McGillivray- was trying to gain land from the creeks, and eventually agreed to give it up. He was known as a national creek leader.
William McIntosh- signed the treaty of indian springs, giving up all the remaining creek lands in Georgia.
Removal of the Cherokee- The cherokees were still there even after the creeks had left.
Sequoyah- created the Cherokee writing system, allowing the Cherokee to read and write in their own language.
John Ross-was a cherokee that argued against the white government that they violated their treaty.
Dahlonega Gold Rush-there was gold found on cherokee territory and the cherokees were harrassed more to give up their lands.
Andrew Jackson-signed the Indian Removal Act, requiring all Indians east of the Mississippi River to move on reservations west of the Mississippi. Slavery- was the backbone of the agricultural world in Georgia.
Nullification- where the state invalidates a federal law they they deem unconstitutional.
Missouri Compromise- this is where Missouri tried to become a slave state and the north didnt like it because it would make the country a majority of slave states. They worked out an agreement though, and made Missouri a slave state, and made Maine a free state, that way it would be equal territory.
Compromise of 1850-After the United States won land from Mexico the north feared slavery spreading into Mexico, so Henry Clay came up with the compromise that they make California a free state. Many southerers thought this went against there rights.
Kansas Nebraska Act- in 1854, congress decided they would let Kansas, and Nebraska choose if they wanted to have slaves or not. A war was broke out in Kansas of slave supporters and people against slavery.
Dred Scott Case- In 1857, the courts destroyed all of the above decisions with the dred scott case.• A slave, Dred Scott, sued in court for his freedom, arguing that he had become free when he and his master lived in Illinois, a free state. Antietam-On September 17, 1862, the North and South fought the first major battle at Antietam Creek.
Emancipation Proclamation-this was a document that president Lincoln issued stating that all slaves are free, but since Lincoln didnt actually control all states no slaves were freed.
Gettysburg-in Gettysburg Pensyllvania, the Confederacy attacked the North, but the north won, and the south's army could not recover.
Andersonville-This was a prison camp, and probably one of the most horrible aspects of the war. They captured Union soldiers and put them in this camp to starve and die slowly and painfully.
Sherman's March to Sea-This is where the Union came through Georgia and destroyed everything hoping to demolish any spirit they had left in fighting. Freedmen's Burea-this was a program to help newly freed blacks in society. It helped provide them with things such as food, clothing, and medicine.
Sharecropping-these were people that owned nothing and had to pay a large portion of their harvest in exchange for supplies.
Tenant Farming-these were people that would rent a portion of land to farm with their own materials.
13th Amendment-abolished slavery in the U.S
14th Amendment-gave citizenship to freed slaves
15th-Amendment-guaranteed ALL citizens to vote. County Unit System-this is where each county could give two unit votes in elections for each member of the House of Assembly the County had.
Leo Frank Case-this was a Jewish man that was accused of the murder of 13 year old Mary Phagan.
1906 Atlanta Riot-10 african men were killed, and 2 white men were killed.
Henry Grady- he urged Georgian's to forget the past and try to make a new south based upon industry. They referred to him as the "voice of the south"
Rebecca Latimer Felton- was the first U.S senator in American History. She only held office for one day. Jim Crow Laws- these segregated different races in public places. This was after reconstruction.
Plessy V. Ferguson- was arrested for sitting in the whites only section of a Louisianna railroad car. He sued in court arguing his rights with the 14th amendment.
Disenfranchisement- this is where they tried to keep blacks from voting even though it was against the law, they would somehow go around it to make it where they couldnt.
Racial Violence- the Ku Klux Klan used
several tactics (“lighting” crosses,
burning churches, guarding polling
places, beatings, murder, etc.) to scare
blacks away from voting. Booker T. Washington-he thought if blacks were to ever prosper in society that they should work hard, and not interogate.. He became a very well known speaker against racism. He was also the first african to visit the white house.
W.E.B DuBois- unlike Booker T. Washington, he thought that blacks should speak out against racism. He thought that Washington was to willing to compromise the rights of blacks.
John and Lugenia Burns Hope-he was the first black president of the Morehouse College, and she was the wife of John hope, and she made an organization helping provide poor blacks with basic needs.
Alonzo Herndon- He was originally born a slave, and then started to be a barber. He was such a successful barber that he used his earnings to start "Atlanta Life Insurance," an insurance company for blacks. There were multiple reasons for World War 1, some of these reasons were the following:
June 28, 1914 when the heir to the
throne of Austria-Hungary,
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was
assassinated by a Serbian nationalist
while touring his empire. America got involved in this war when Germany decided to attack one of our ships they found. Bollweevil- this was an insect that would lay its eggs in the cotton, and as the larvae matured it would eat the cotton. On top of this, there was a drought going on a lttle after the boll weevil which really affected the economics in Georgia, because that was one of the largest crops at the time. It is basically what Georgia specialized in. Georgia resulted in the Great Depression because in 1929 the stock market crashed, and this cause the collapse of banks, failure of businesses, and basically ruined the economy. This was the longest period of unemployment and the greatest percentage of it in modern history. Eugene Talmadge-he was president roosevelts greatest politcal opponent. He served three times as the commissioner of agriculture, and three times as governor. Farmers really supported him because the whole time he was active in his career he fought for farmers rights. New Deal-they put Franklin D. Roosevelt in office during the Great Depression because they thought he could fix it. His program he came up with to try and fix the crisis was called the "New Deal." He had four different subprograms in this one large program that were called:
The civilian conservation corps
The agricultural adjustment act
social security Lend Lease-In 1941, Congress passed the
Lend-Lease Act, lending supplies to their allies in the security of America. In return America gained bases on Greenland, and Iceland.
Bombing of Pearl Harbor-on december 7, 1941 the Empire of Japan launched an attack on the U.S naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The following day the United States declared war on Japan. Bell Aircraft-was a bomber plant in Marietta, Ga that provided many job opportunities for woman and african americans.
Military Bases-became home to more
military training bases than any
other state in the U.S. besides
Savannah and Brunswick shipyards-provided ideal areas for the construction of war ships.
Richard Russell- He was a former Ga governor. He became a U.S senator for 7 consecutive terms.
Carl Vinson-served in the U.S house of representatives for 50 years. He and Russel teamed together to help bring as many military installations to Georgia as possible. Holocaust-this is an event where Hitler became the dictator of the Naxi party, and hated Jewish people, and wound up murdering over 6 million of them. This impacted Georgia because in 1986 Governor Joe Frank Harris took notice in the issue, and made a commission. The commission stated to teach future generations about the dangers of prejudice, and racial hatred. Roosevelt- He suffered from a severe case of polio. To treat his polio, he would often go vist Warm Springs, because the waters provided theraputic pain relief. He had a great impact on Georgia because he recognized many different issues that would benefit the whole population. After World War 2, Georgia prospered in many ways. Some of the things that changed were:
changes in agriculture.
Some of the things that changed in Agriculture were:
no more tenant farming due to the agricultural adjustment act.
Tractors William B. Hartsfield- was a pioneer in technology throughout his career. In 1925 he helped purchase the racetrack that the Atlanta Airport was built on.
Ivan Allen Jr.- became mayor after Hartsfield, and served from 1962-1970. He also built Atlanta's Memorial Arts cultural center. He also built Atlanta's Civic Center, and brought in Atlanta's three major professional sports franchises: the Braves, the Hawks, and the Falcons. Ellis Arnall- served as governor of Georgia from 1943-1947. He is considered most open minded governor in history, and he defeated Eugene Talmadge for governor in 1943. He also removed UGA's governor, and restored the colleges accredidation. Benjamin Mays-president of Morehouse College heavily influenced by Ghandi.
Martin Luther King Jr.- believed in non violent methods of protest to bring about change; marches, demonstrations, and boycotts.
Brown vs. Board of Education- In 1954, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) won a landmark decision in the United States Supreme Court. The founding of the SNCC- Several students adopted King’s strategy of non-violent protest and formed the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. One of the leaders of SNCC was Georgia
native and Morehouse College graduate, Julian Bond. Bond was later elected to the U.S. Senate for Georgia. SNCC used sit-ins at lunch counters and later expanded to promote voter registration
in the South.
The Sibley Commission-After schools were ordered desegregated in 1954 by the Brown decision, Georgia refused to cooperate and threatened to stop funding any schools that integrated. In 1960, Georgia’s government formed a commission to ask Georgians how they felt about the matter. The commission was led by influential Atlanta banker John Sibley.
The Integration of the University of Georgia- • By order of the U.S. District Court in Athens, GA, the University of Georgia was ordered to be integrated. Despite angry protests and threats, Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes became the first two African-
Americans to enroll at UGA.
The March on Washington- In 1963, more than 250,000 got together in Washington D.C to demand equal rights for blacks. This is also where Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his "I have a dream speech" Andrew Young- in 1972, he was elected the U.S House of Representatives in Georgia. In 1977, he was appointed to be the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. Also, in 1996 he served as co- chairman of the Atlanta Commission on the Olympic Games. The county unit system- this gave too much political power to rural areas, rather than cities. Also, disregarding the population, no counties received more than 3 electoral votes. In 1962, the U.S. Supreme Court deemed the county unit system as a violation of equal protection.
Reapportionment- this was considered a better way to ensure equal representation. Federal courts determined that the 14th Amendment meant that Georgia needed to reapportion its districts to reflect its population better. This brought greater representation to african americans, women, and republicans. Jimmy Carter- he was the first and only Georgian to be elected president of the United States. He also served in the navy, and in 1962 he was elected to the General Assembly of the state of Georgia. After this in 1970, he was elected governor of Georgia, and as governor he got rid of segregation in Georgia. He reorganized the state government, led reforms in
education and criminal justice, and promoted civil rights. Democrats- they ruled Georgia's government since reconstruction, but there power started to decrease as time went on.
Republican- in 1964, for the first time, Georgians started to support a Republicans as president. Since 1964, Georgia has only supported 2 democrats. 1996 Olympic Games-Atlanta and other Georgia cities gained new hotels, restaurants, athletic facilities, and the Centennial Park. This event surplused Georgia by 5 billion dollars. In Georgia, in the 1900's, immigration grew alot. Immagrants came to Georgia for better opportunities at life. Many people took advantage of them and used them as cheap labor.