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Transcript of Reformation
'A 16th-century movement for the reform of abuses in the Roman Catholic Church ending in the establishment of the Reformed and Protestant Churches' (Dictionnary.com, 2012)
One of the most influential movements in history to take place in Western Europe
Took place in Germany, France, England, Spain, Portugal, Scotland, Italy and the Holy Roman Empire Introduction In the 14th century, it was believed that salvation could not be found outside of thw church
In 1347, Rome elected a new Pope
began to mistrust their religious leaders for in them, truth and goodness was dominated by arrogance and corruption
indulgences were taken by the church, and then prayers were made for the forgiveness of sins
Felt that the simple teaching of Christ had been abandoned
However, those who attempted to speak out against the church were put on trial and, if found guilty, they were burned on the stake for heresy Background Lifespan: 1370 - 1415
First protestant reformer
Czech priest and philosopher
Dean at Charles University
Attacked the believes of Catholic clerics
Preached ideas and recruited loyal followers known as 'Hussites'
Imprisoned by Archbishop and sentenced to burn at the stake
Prophecy; he stated that: “In 100 years, God will raise up a man whose calls for reform cannot be suppressed.”
In 1517, almost 100 years later, Martin Luther made his move for reformation Jan Hus
Lifespan: 1483 - 1546
Most influential and controversial figure;
Began the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. starting it off in Germany
Originally on his way to becoming a lawyer
Pious man; dreaded hell
After being presumably rescued from a dangerous thunderstorm by patron, St. Anne, Luther became a monk Martin Luther In 1517, Pope Leo X announced a new round of indulgences to help build St. Peter'sBasilica
Luther rebelled against the Pope and nailed a sheet of paper, with the 'Ninety-Five Theses,' on the Chapel door
attacked mainly the practice and selling of indulgences
dealt with purgatory, particular judgement, devotion to Mary, devotion to Saints, most of the sacraments, clergy and authority of the Pope
Sent a copy of the document to the Archbishop of Mainz
In 1519, Luther publicly declared that the Bible did not give the Pope the right to interpret scripture The Ninety-Five Theses Summoned before secular authorities of the Diet of Worms (assembly)
Ordered Luther to take back statement against the Pope, but he refused
Officially became a convicted heretic in 1521
while in seclusion, he translated the New Testament in German. This gave ordinary people the ability to read God's word
in 1522, he organized a new Church, Lutheranism
peasants revolted, but Luther had the support of many, including that of German princes and rulers
Served as a dean of Theology between 1533-1546 Excommunication Lifespan: 1509 – 1564
Influential French theologian and pastor during the reformation
He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism
Fled to Basel, Switzerland, after violent uprisings were provoked in France, where he published the first edition of his seminal work: The Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536. This influenced reformation in Switzerland
In 1536, Calvin was recruited by William Farel to help reform the church in Geneva, where he preached sermons John Calvin Lifespan: 1484 - 1531
Pastor and Leader of the Reformation in Switzerland; prepared a reformatory program i.e, "sola Scriptura" etc.
Learned Greek, in order to read and practice the Bible on his own
opposed the theology of human self-redemption
learned that the death of Christ was the only remission of sin
preached from the Gospel's directly to transform lives (more positive based). He succeeded
In 1518, his theology of the Eucharist began to develop
elements are symbols, and not the real body and blood of Christ
In 1522, he attacked the custom of fasting during Lent
In 1529, a war between the two sides was averted at the last moment, in which he was killed Huldrych Zwingli In 1545, The Council of Trent wanted to reclaim the moral highground and superiority of the Holy Church against the Protestants
Also, directed efforts towards internal renewal
Jesuits formed; they were a band of militants and missionairies whose task was to reconvert the converts
Used the Roman Inquisition (for example, torture) to track down opposition
After 20 years, decrees were issued covering the Church's authority and corruption
New churches were ordered Counter Reformation After a long fought battle, the Protestant church had been recognized
The Augsburg Interim gave Protestants rights, for example, the right to marry and the right to receive communion. This influenced even more rights to flourish and reasons for acceptance within society
New churches were constructed
The Roman Catholic Church continued to exist Conclusion Had the opportunity to be a delegate in the Roman Church
Witnessed much corruption amongst the priests
Major point of view change: must believe and have faith in religion in order to find salvation. God should not be feared, but shown affection to and trusted
This marked the start of the long battle between religions Bibliography •"Ateneo De Naga high school 1980: Martin Luther and Reformation Day." Adenu. N.p. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. <http://adenu1980.blogspot.ca/2011/10/martin-luther-and-reformation-day.html>.
•"Augsburg Interim." Wikipedia. N.p. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augsburg_Interim>.
•"CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Reformation." NEW ADVENT. N.p. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12700b.htm>.
•"Enjoy - Food & Travel: Pre-reformation Art at Statens Museum for Kunst." Enjoy - Food & Travel. N.p. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <http://www.enjoyfoodtravel.com/2009/01/pre-reformation-art-at-statens-museum.html>.
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•"Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance . Renaissance . Counter Reformation | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. N.p. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/empires/medici/renaissance/counter.html>.
•"Mesopotamian Religion: Prelude to Axial Age." Genealogy of Religion. N.p. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://genealogyreligion.net/mesopotamian-religion-prelude-to-axial-age>.
•"Portrait of Martin Luther (1528)." Sacred Sites at Sacred Destinations. N.p. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://www.sacred-destinations.com/germany/wittenberg-lutherhaus-photos/slides/xti_8715p>.
•"Protestant Reformation - Theopedia, an encyclopedia of Biblical Christianity." Theopedia. N.p. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <http://www.theopedia.com/Protestant_Reformation>.
•"The Haters: GotQuestions vs. Roman Catholicism." Blogos. N.p. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <http://www.blogos.org/gotquestions/roman-catholicism.html>.