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Transcript of Intelligence
WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?
The ability to learn from
To solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt
to new situations
To invent a concept, give it a name, & then convince ourselves it exists
the identification of clusters of
test items that identify basic
components of intelligence
such as outgoing, shy, moody, passive-
a person with a limited
mental ability, but an exceptional specific skill
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate
Is this really an intelligence?
the ability to produce
ideas that are novel and valuable
5 components of Creativity
Expertise---well developed knowledge
Imaginative Thinking skills---unique way of looking at things
Venturesome personality---tolerate ambiguity?
Accept and overcome obstacles
Intrinsic Motivation---motivated by interest, enjoyment, personal satisfaction
Creative Environment---sparks, enhances, and refines creative ideas
Human brain averages 3 pounds
female brain 10% smaller
Newborns brains weigh 10-14 ounces
People who perceive faster
score higher on intelligence
Higher IQ brains
information is retrieved faster
Immigration Act of 1924
Law passed to slow down or stop
"weaker stock" from entering
the United States---
Tests dependent on speaking
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes & comparing them to the scores of others using numerical scores
The same word can be added to the
end of GRASS and the beginning
of SCAPE to form 2 other English
words? What is the word?
Only one other word can be made from all the letters of INSATIABLE. Can you find it?
Which vowel comes midway between J & T?
Pear is to apple as potato is to?
which of the following objects is least like the others?
Poem, Novel, Painting, Statue, Flower
4 years ago, Jane was twice as old as Sam. Four years from now, Sam will be 3/4 of Jane's age. How old is Jane now?
continue the following number series with the group of numbers below which best continues the series?
1 10 3 9 5 8 7 7 9 6? ?
Which number comes next in this series of numbers?
2 3 5 7 11 13 ?
14 15 16 17 18
Which letter comes next in this series of letters?
B A C B D C E D F
C D E F G
Sally likes 225 but not 224; she likes 900 but not 800; she likes 144 but not 145. Which does she like 1600 or 1700?
If two typists can type two pages in two minutes, how many typists will it to type take18 pages in 6 minutes?
If it were 2 hours later, it would be half as long til midnight as it would be if it were an hour later. What time is it now?
What is the number that is one half of one quarter of one tenth of 400?
Fill in the missing number.
0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,___, 34, 55
Two men, starting at the same point, walk in opposite directions for 4 meters, turn left and walk another 3 meters. What is the distance between them?
which word of four letters can be added to the following words to create other English words?
card box code bag haste
1 8 27 ? 125 216
Following the pattern shown in the number sequence below, what is the missing number?
What is the following word when it is unscrambled?
H C P R A A T E U
Which same 3-letter word can be placed in front of the following words to make a new word?
SIGN, DONE, DUCT, FOUND, FIRM, TRACT, DENSE
Sir Francis Galton
Spent his life
proving that heredity
plays a vital role
in physical & mental
NATURE & NURTURE
developed the first
intelligence test to
assess mental abilities
a social philosophy
focused on improving
human hereditary traits
or more 'desired' people
developed by Binet
the intelligence that
the average child of a
specific age has
"of the founders of
my greatest admiration is
Stanford Professor who
revised Binet's test--
Hoped to see the elimination
on 'dull' groups
the merging of
Binet's & Terman's
test---Highly influential in the development of the Bell Curve
IQ= Mental Age/chronological Age
then multiply by 100
average is 85-115
Psychology of Wisdom
designed to predict a person's future
Test designed to find out what a person has learned
Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale
WAIS & WISC--intelligence tests
to produce an IQ score--used as a clinical tool
the process of defining
meaningful scores relative to a pretested group
have been rising
Reliability--are the scores
Validity--a test that measures
& predicts what it is supposed to
Content Validity--a test that measures the learned or needed content
Criterion-- the behavior that a test is designed to predict
Predictive Ability--the SUCCESS with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
Stability of intelligence scores over a lifespan?
THE EXTREMES of the NORMAL DISTRIBUTION OF INTELLIGENCE
Low Extreme-- mental retardation
Low IQ test score below 70%
1% of the population
Mild retardation 50%-70%
Moderate retardation 35%-49% (2ND GRADE)
Sternberg's 20 reasons intelligent people fail
4.Using wrong abilities
5.Inability to translate thought into action
6.More concerned with process than result
7.Inability to complete tasks
8.Failure to initiate
9.Fear of failure
11.Misattribution of blame
14.Wallowing in personal difficulties
15.Distractibility & lack of concentration
16.Spreading oneself too thick or too thin
17.Inability to delay gratification
18.Inability to see the forest for the trees
19.Lack of balance between critical, analytical thinking and creative, synthetic thinking
20.Too little or too much confidence
Heritability of Intelligence
Identical Twins have a
0.86 correlation of
intelligence--perfect would be 1.0 & chance is
Is there a Genius gene?
Can YOU be Trained to be a Genius?
Ethnic Similarities on
Why are there similarities?
races are similar
race is social, not biological
Asian students out perform Americans
The better fed, better educated, better prepared do better
On aptitude tests the races are almost identical
Over history, different groups achieve at different levels
Girls spell better
girls more verbal
girls more observant
girls more sensitive
boys better at math
girls detect emotions
Emotion ---a response of
the entire organism
Experience of emotion
results from the
awareness of the
the theory that an emotion
arousing stimulus triggers
simultaneously the physical
and emotional response
Every emotion triggers an opposing
emotion to create a balance
REPETITION of the event that
begins the primary emotion
strengthens the opposing emotion
Physcial label &
The experience of an
emotion stems from our
awareness of physical arousal
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic arouses---release of
Parasympathetic calms the body
The autonomic nervous system mobilizes the body for action during emotional arousal--
liver places sugar in bloodstream, digestion may slow, increased blood flow, perspiration
Prolonged physical arousal--
created by stress can wear
down the body
3 emotions with very similar physiological responses
located in the Limbic System
fear & anger
hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus
all associated with emotion & anger
activity in the the right prefrontal lobe
Depression-prone people demonstrate
more right frontal lobe activity
PEOPLE who have had a stroke
in their right frontal lobe are
less irritable & are happier
Left frontal lobe more active
The left lobe is connected to being
alert, energetic, goal-orientation
Left Frontal Lobe
high levels of dopamine influence behavior
dopamine influences movement, learning, attention, & emotion...too much is linked to schizophrenia
Arousal spills from one event to the NEXT
Schacter & Singer
hormone released by the
4 Forms of Sensation Seeking
Thrill & Adventure Seeking
we can experience emotion unconsciously---Zajonc contends that when we have experienced some unsettling news, such as we have hurt someone's feelings & then we get distracted---we still
feel the emotion even when we are distracted
some emotional responses do not require conscious
after initial response emotions can become more complex
People who have been abused,
especially children are very
sensitive to nonverbal cues
real or phony?
Facial Muscles Reveal Emotion
facial expressions intensify emotions
Objective 11---Culture-specific & culturally universal of emotional expressions
NIXON, US Naval officers, most basic emotions demonstrated the same worldwide--even those blind at birth exhibit smiles when happy and frowns when upset
the effect of facial expressions on learned emotions--facial expressions enhance the feeling of emotion
body movement expresses emotion
THE BASIC EMOTIONS
protect & harm
protect & harm
We learn fears
that lab raised monkeys
did not fear snakes--
however when introduced
to monkeys in the wild they
came to fear snakes
Biology & Fear
Hypothalamus---maintenance activities, eating, drinking, and body temp
Hippocampus--new memories processed-if it doesn't work properly then cannot learn new fears
A PHOBIA is an intense fear
Venting of anger--an emotional release
The theory that releasing aggressive
energy will relieve aggressive urges
What if expressing anger become reinforcing?
2 best ways of handling anger
wait--calm down, allow physiological level to diminish
Deal with anger--talk, exercise, hobby, forgiveness
Feel-good, do-good PHENOMENON
more helpful when in a good mood
self-perceived happiness or life satisfaction
What are the indicators of happiness?
Emotions are much more positive in
the early & middle part of the day
"Weeping may tarry for the night, but joy comes with the morning." Psalms 30:5
Stress events can serve as triggers for bad moods
Affluence & Happiness
Are people happier today
than 50 years ago?
Happiness built on prior experience--
we have a tendency to base our judgments on stimuli and experiences from previous situations
TOO LOUD? TOO COLD? HAPPY?
SAD? TOO SLOW? TOO FAST?
Happiness Set Point
10 ways to be happier
1. Happiness does not come from financial success
2. Take control of your time
3. ACT HAPPY
4. Seek work and leisure that engage your skills
5. Join the "Movement" Movement
6. Give your body the sleep it wants
7. Give priority to close relationships
8. Focus beyond self
9. Be grateful
10. Nurture your Spiritual Self (p. 545, Myers)
What is emotion?
Grades? Intelligence? Beauty?
6X more common in males
Analytical (Conventional)---IQ tests, single right answer
Creative----Unique ideas, handle novel situations well
Practical---day-to-day is easy---multitasker
Elephant brain 10.5 pounds
An octopus has more neurons than any other animal
life span context
Recognition of uncertainty
Developed by Charles Spearman--the belief that there is a general level of intelligence--if you are intelligent in one area, then you will probably be intelligent in others
Cognition is when a person uses higher level thinking or mental processes to make decisions and judgments. Dwayne is not using cognition when he thinks Kansas State will win because KSU is struggling to even win conference games and they lost in the first round of the NCAA Tournament last year. Dwayne is showing poor cognition in his in information processing about KSU and understanding how good the team is.
Flashbulb memory is a very vivid and distinct memory that one seems to remember in great detail. Some things such as weddings, proposals, and the birth of a child can have a very lasting and easily remembered effect on a person. Uncle Fester may be able to recognize his children and remember their names by connecting his flashbulb memories to births, vacations, and special events such as graduations and weddings.
Intelligence is the ability to adapt to change.
I know that I am intelligent, because I know that I know nothing.----Socrates
Common sense is genius dressed in its working clothes. Ralph Waldo Emerson
All intelligent thoughts have already been thought;
what is necessary is only to try to think them again.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Howard Gardner's 8 Intelligences
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
Intelligence, Reify, g Factor
What is IQ?
How are tests really a measure of anything?
Are tests valid? reliable?
• define and describe worry
• What causes it?
• Why do we worry?
• Is there anything good about worrying?
• Negative aspects of worry--
A stranger tells you about a person who is short, slim, and likes
to read poetry, and then asks you to guess whether this person
is more likely to be an English professor at an Ivy League school
or a truck driver. Which would be a better guess?
10 Ivy League schools with about 10 male English professors at each school= 100
How many of this 100 would be short & slim? maybe half= 50
Of the 50 slim, short ones, how many like to read poetry?
perhaps 1 in 5 = 10
How many truck drivers are there? 500,000
How many of this 500,000 are short & slim?
maybe 20% = 100,000
Of the 100,000, how many like to read poetry?
maybe 1 in 100 = 1,000
Are there multiple intelligences?
Who decides what is intelligent?
Testing? What makes a test valid?
The extremes of Intelligence
Gender differences in intelligence
3 parts of an emotion--
Which is most important? Why?
Autonomic & Sympathetic Nervous System
Arousal & Performance
2 Factor Schacter
February 26, 2015
feel-good, do good
February 9, 2016
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
the ability to recognize your emotions,
understand what they are telling you,
and realize how your emotions affect
EI also involves your
perception of others