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Intelligence

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Ron Cook

on 15 August 2016

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Transcript of Intelligence

Thinking & Emotion
WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?
Intelligence
The ability to learn from
experience.
To solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt
to new situations
Reify
To invent a concept, give it a name, & then convince ourselves it exists
Factor Analysis
the identification of clusters of
test items that identify basic
components of intelligence
such as outgoing, shy, moody, passive-
GENERAL INTELLIGENCE
HOWARD GARDNER
Savant Syndrome
a person with a limited
mental ability, but an exceptional specific skill
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
Emotional Intelligence
The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate
Is this really an intelligence?
the ability to produce
ideas that are novel and valuable
5 components of Creativity
Expertise---well developed knowledge
Imaginative Thinking skills---unique way of looking at things
Venturesome personality---tolerate ambiguity?
Accept and overcome obstacles
Intrinsic Motivation---motivated by interest, enjoyment, personal satisfaction
Creative Environment---sparks, enhances, and refines creative ideas
Human brain averages 3 pounds
female brain 10% smaller
Newborns brains weigh 10-14 ounces
Perceptual Speed
People who perceive faster
score higher on intelligence
tests
Neurological Speed
Higher IQ brains
recall quicker--
information is retrieved faster
Immigration Act of 1924
Law passed to slow down or stop
"weaker stock" from entering
the United States---
Tests dependent on speaking
fluent English
Intelligence Tests
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes & comparing them to the scores of others using numerical scores
The same word can be added to the
end of GRASS and the beginning
of SCAPE to form 2 other English
words? What is the word?
Only one other word can be made from all the letters of INSATIABLE. Can you find it?
Which vowel comes midway between J & T?
Pear is to apple as potato is to?
which of the following objects is least like the others?
Poem, Novel, Painting, Statue, Flower
4 years ago, Jane was twice as old as Sam. Four years from now, Sam will be 3/4 of Jane's age. How old is Jane now?
continue the following number series with the group of numbers below which best continues the series?
1 10 3 9 5 8 7 7 9 6? ?
Which number comes next in this series of numbers?
2 3 5 7 11 13 ?
14 15 16 17 18
Which letter comes next in this series of letters?
B A C B D C E D F
C D E F G
Sally likes 225 but not 224; she likes 900 but not 800; she likes 144 but not 145. Which does she like 1600 or 1700?
If two typists can type two pages in two minutes, how many typists will it to type take18 pages in 6 minutes?
If it were 2 hours later, it would be half as long til midnight as it would be if it were an hour later. What time is it now?
What is the number that is one half of one quarter of one tenth of 400?
Fill in the missing number.
0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,___, 34, 55
Two men, starting at the same point, walk in opposite directions for 4 meters, turn left and walk another 3 meters. What is the distance between them?
which word of four letters can be added to the following words to create other English words?

card box code bag haste
1 8 27 ? 125 216
Following the pattern shown in the number sequence below, what is the missing number?
What is the following word when it is unscrambled?

H C P R A A T E U
Which same 3-letter word can be placed in front of the following words to make a new word?
SIGN, DONE, DUCT, FOUND, FIRM, TRACT, DENSE
Sir Francis Galton
Spent his life
proving that heredity
plays a vital role
in physical & mental
development
NATURE & NURTURE
Alfred Binet
French Psychologist
developed the first
intelligence test to
assess mental abilities
EUGENICS
a social philosophy
focused on improving
human hereditary traits
through reproduction
or more 'desired' people
& traits
Mental AGE
developed by Binet
the intelligence that
the average child of a
specific age has
Lewis Terman
"of the founders of
modern Psychology,
my greatest admiration is
for Galton"
Stanford Professor who
revised Binet's test--
Hoped to see the elimination
on 'dull' groups
Stanford-Binet
the merging of
Binet's & Terman's
test---Highly influential in the development of the Bell Curve
Intelligence Quotient
IQ= Mental Age/chronological Age
then multiply by 100
average is 85-115
Psychology of Wisdom
Aptitude tests--
designed to predict a person's future
Achievement Tests--
Test designed to find out what a person has learned
Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale
WAIS & WISC--intelligence tests
to produce an IQ score--used as a clinical tool
Standardization
the process of defining
meaningful scores relative to a pretested group
FLYNN EFFECT
Intelligence scores
have been rising
Reliability--are the scores
consistent?
Validity--a test that measures
& predicts what it is supposed to
Content Validity--a test that measures the learned or needed content
Criterion-- the behavior that a test is designed to predict
Predictive Ability--the SUCCESS with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
Stability of intelligence scores over a lifespan?
THE EXTREMES of the NORMAL DISTRIBUTION OF INTELLIGENCE
Low Extreme-- mental retardation
Low IQ test score below 70%
1% of the population
Mild retardation 50%-70%
Moderate retardation 35%-49% (2ND GRADE)
Severe

Sternberg's 20 reasons intelligent people fail
1.Motivation
2.Impulse control
3.Perseverance
4.Using wrong abilities
5.Inability to translate thought into action
6.More concerned with process than result
7.Inability to complete tasks
8.Failure to initiate
9.Fear of failure
10.Procrastination
11.Misattribution of blame
12.Excessive self-pity
13.Excessive dependency
14.Wallowing in personal difficulties
15.Distractibility & lack of concentration
16.Spreading oneself too thick or too thin
17.Inability to delay gratification
18.Inability to see the forest for the trees
19.Lack of balance between critical, analytical thinking and creative, synthetic thinking
20.Too little or too much confidence

Heritability of Intelligence
Identical Twins have a
0.86 correlation of
intelligence--perfect would be 1.0 & chance is
around .50
Environemental Influences?
Is there a Genius gene?
Can YOU be Trained to be a Genius?
Ethnic Similarities on
Intelligence Tests?
Environmental
Factors----
Why are there similarities?
6 reasons
races are similar
race is social, not biological
Asian students out perform Americans
The better fed, better educated, better prepared do better
On aptitude tests the races are almost identical
Over history, different groups achieve at different levels
Girls spell better
girls more verbal
girls more observant
girls more sensitive
boys better at math
girls detect emotions
Emotion ---a response of
the entire organism
PHYSIOLOGICAL
EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE
EMOTION
James-Lange
Experience of emotion
results from the
awareness of the
physiological awareness
Cannon-Bard
the theory that an emotion
arousing stimulus triggers
simultaneously the physical
and emotional response
Opponent-Process
Every emotion triggers an opposing
emotion to create a balance
REPETITION of the event that
begins the primary emotion
strengthens the opposing emotion
Physcial label &
cognitive label---
The experience of an
emotion stems from our
awareness of physical arousal
Autonomic Nervous System

Sympathetic arouses---release of
epinephrine (adrenaline)

Parasympathetic calms the body

The autonomic nervous system mobilizes the body for action during emotional arousal--
liver places sugar in bloodstream, digestion may slow, increased blood flow, perspiration

Prolonged physical arousal--
created by stress can wear
down the body
SEX-ANGER-FEAR
3 emotions with very similar physiological responses
FEARFUL
Limbic System
AMYGDALA
located in the Limbic System
fear & anger

hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus
all associated with emotion & anger
Disgust
activity in the the right prefrontal lobe
Depression-Prone
Depression-prone people demonstrate
more right frontal lobe activity
PEOPLE who have had a stroke
in their right frontal lobe are
less irritable & are happier
Positive Moods
Left frontal lobe more active
The left lobe is connected to being
alert, energetic, goal-orientation
Left Frontal Lobe
high levels of dopamine influence behavior
dopamine influences movement, learning, attention, & emotion...too much is linked to schizophrenia
Arousal spills from one event to the NEXT
Schacter & Singer
"catching" an
emotion----
epinephrine injection
epinephrine--aka adrenaline
hormone released by the
adrenal glands
Marvin Zuckerman
4 Forms of Sensation Seeking
Thrill & Adventure Seeking
Experience-Seeking
Disinhibition
Boredom susceptibility
70% accurate?
Rober Zajonc
Joseph LeDoux
we can experience emotion unconsciously---Zajonc contends that when we have experienced some unsettling news, such as we have hurt someone's feelings & then we get distracted---we still
feel the emotion even when we are distracted
Emotions can
hijack thinking
Richard Lazarus
some emotional responses do not require conscious
thought--
after initial response emotions can become more complex
NONVERBAL CUES
facial expressions
People who have been abused,
especially children are very
sensitive to nonverbal cues
Gender differences--
real or phony?
Facial Muscles Reveal Emotion
facial expressions intensify emotions
Objective 11---Culture-specific & culturally universal of emotional expressions
NIXON, US Naval officers, most basic emotions demonstrated the same worldwide--even those blind at birth exhibit smiles when happy and frowns when upset
Facial Feedback
the effect of facial expressions on learned emotions--facial expressions enhance the feeling of emotion
Behavior Feedback
body movement expresses emotion
THE BASIC EMOTIONS
How Many?
Joy
interest
surprise
anger
sadness
disgust
contempt
fear
shame
guilt
FEAR
poisonous
sleep deprivation
contagious
adaptive
protect & harm
Focus
coping
protect & harm
We learn fears
MINEKA (1985)
Mineka demonstrated
that lab raised monkeys
did not fear snakes--
however when introduced
to monkeys in the wild they
came to fear snakes
Biology & Fear
amygdala
Limbic system
Hypothalamus---maintenance activities, eating, drinking, and body temp
Hippocampus--new memories processed-if it doesn't work properly then cannot learn new fears
PHOBIAS
A PHOBIA is an intense fear
Anger--a temporary
madness
Catharsis
Venting of anger--an emotional release
The theory that releasing aggressive
energy will relieve aggressive urges
What if expressing anger become reinforcing?
2 best ways of handling anger
wait--calm down, allow physiological level to diminish
Deal with anger--talk, exercise, hobby, forgiveness
Feel-good, do-good PHENOMENON
more helpful when in a good mood
Subjective well-being
self-perceived happiness or life satisfaction
What are the indicators of happiness?
Positive Emotions
Emotions are much more positive in
the early & middle part of the day
STRESSFUL EVENTS
"Weeping may tarry for the night, but joy comes with the morning." Psalms 30:5
Stress events can serve as triggers for bad moods
Affluence & Happiness
Are people happier today
than 50 years ago?
Wealthier-but-no-happier Phenomenon---happiness
is declining
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon
Happiness built on prior experience--
we have a tendency to base our judgments on stimuli and experiences from previous situations
TOO LOUD? TOO COLD? HAPPY?
SAD? TOO SLOW? TOO FAST?
Happiness Set Point
10 ways to be happier
1. Happiness does not come from financial success
2. Take control of your time
3. ACT HAPPY
4. Seek work and leisure that engage your skills
5. Join the "Movement" Movement
6. Give your body the sleep it wants
7. Give priority to close relationships
8. Focus beyond self
9. Be grateful
10. Nurture your Spiritual Self (p. 545, Myers)
What is emotion?
Grades? Intelligence? Beauty?
6X more common in males
Analytical (Conventional)---IQ tests, single right answer
Creative----Unique ideas, handle novel situations well
Practical---day-to-day is easy---multitasker
Elephant brain 10.5 pounds
An octopus has more neurons than any other animal
Factual knowledge
procedural knowledge
life span context
Value relativism
Recognition of uncertainty

g factor--
Developed by Charles Spearman--the belief that there is a general level of intelligence--if you are intelligent in one area, then you will probably be intelligent in others
Cognition is when a person uses higher level thinking or mental processes to make decisions and judgments. Dwayne is not using cognition when he thinks Kansas State will win because KSU is struggling to even win conference games and they lost in the first round of the NCAA Tournament last year. Dwayne is showing poor cognition in his in information processing about KSU and understanding how good the team is.
Flashbulb memory is a very vivid and distinct memory that one seems to remember in great detail. Some things such as weddings, proposals, and the birth of a child can have a very lasting and easily remembered effect on a person. Uncle Fester may be able to recognize his children and remember their names by connecting his flashbulb memories to births, vacations, and special events such as graduations and weddings.
Intelligence is the ability to adapt to change.
Stephen Hawking

I know that I am intelligent, because I know that I know nothing.----Socrates
Common sense is genius dressed in its working clothes. Ralph Waldo Emerson

All intelligent thoughts have already been thought;
what is necessary is only to try to think them again.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe


Emotional Intelligence
Creativity

Howard Gardner's 8 Intelligences
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
Intelligence, Reify, g Factor
What is IQ?

How are tests really a measure of anything?

Are tests valid? reliable?
• define and describe worry
• What causes it?
• Why do we worry?
• Is there anything good about worrying?
• Negative aspects of worry--

A stranger tells you about a person who is short, slim, and likes
to read poetry, and then asks you to guess whether this person
is more likely to be an English professor at an Ivy League school
or a truck driver. Which would be a better guess?
10 Ivy League schools with about 10 male English professors at each school= 100

How many of this 100 would be short & slim? maybe half= 50

Of the 50 slim, short ones, how many like to read poetry?
perhaps 1 in 5 = 10

How many truck drivers are there? 500,000

How many of this 500,000 are short & slim?
maybe 20% = 100,000

Of the 100,000, how many like to read poetry?
maybe 1 in 100 = 1,000


Are there multiple intelligences?

Who decides what is intelligent?

Testing? What makes a test valid?
The extremes of Intelligence
Gender differences in intelligence
Emotions
3 parts of an emotion--
Which is most important? Why?

Autonomic & Sympathetic Nervous System
Arousal & Performance
James-Lange
Cannon-Bard
2 Factor Schacter
Amygdala
Gender Differences
Facial Feedback
Behavior Feedback
Fear
Hypothalamus
Hippocampus



February 26, 2015
Catharsis
feel-good, do good
subjective well-being

Self Awareness
Self Management
Motivation
Empathy
Skilled Relationships
February 9, 2016
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
the ability to recognize your emotions,
understand what they are telling you,
and realize how your emotions affect
people around

EI also involves your
perception of others
Full transcript