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Bias in Service Delivery
Transcript of Bias in Service Delivery
Bias in Service Delivery
Jones and Seagull (1983) They asked African American and White clinicians to evaluate the level of adjustment of African American therapy clients.
The Impact of Social, Political,
and Racial Attitudes
Although ethnic minorities make up approximately 25% of the current U.S. population, with dramatic increases ahead, they constitute less than 15% of the student enrollment and less than 9 % of full-time faculty in applied psychology programs.
Under-Representation in the Professions
In the end, this very functional approach to infusing ethnic community members into the mental health delivery system was under minded.
The use of Paraprofessionals
3. In Western psychology, helpers tend to be passive in their interventions; indigenous healers are more active and take a major role and responsibility in the healing process itself.
Examples of Traditional Healers and the Current Use of Traditional Healers
Cultural Aspects of Mental Health Service Delivery
Questions for Chapter 8.
1. What is self-fulfilling prophecy?
An extreme example is in the case study found at the beginning of the chapter pg.167.
There is a vast body of research in social psychology that shows how attitudes can unconsciously affect behavior. Examples:
In another experiment (1976) they used beginning psychology students to train rats.
In the two experiments what the teacher and the psychology students believed and expected were translated into differential behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy.
In a classic study, Broverman et al. (1970) They looked at gender stereotyping and definitions of mental health.
Researchers looked at the effect of political attitudes on the diagnosis of mental disorders (Wechsler, Solomon, and Kramer, 1970).
Clients prefer helpers from their own ethnic group.
People of color are sadly underrepresented among the ranks of helping professionals.
This lack of non-White providers is often cited as one of the reasons for the under use of mental health services by people of color.
Membership in the American Psychological Association in 1971 showed 3% were non-White. In 1994, it moved up to about 4%.
Paraprofessional- It is a person to whom a particular aspect of a professional task is delegated but who is not licensed to practice as a fully qualified professional.
The National Institutes of Mental Health committed extensive resources to educating mental health facilities in the use of ethnic paraprofessionals.
This program got the attention that it needed and people were even going back to school to become professionals. The problem was that it appealed to White middle- to upper-middle-class students.
1. Traditional healing views human capacities holistically, whereas Western providers typically distinguish among physical, spiritual, and mental well-being.
2. In Western psychology, helping occurs through cognitive and emotional change. In traditional healing, there is also a spiritual basis to health and well-being.
These relate to the fact that current mental health theory and practice are defined in terms of dominant Northern European cultural values and norms and therefore limit the ability of providers to address and serve the needs of non-White populations adequately.
Cultural mismatch- Situation in which a child's home culture and the school culture hold conflicting expectations for the child's behavior.
The current helping model portrays clients of color in a negative light, highlights their "weaknesses" and assumes pathology even when it does not necessarily exist.
It is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.
It is a person to whom a particular aspect of a professional task is delegated but who is not licensed to practice as a fully qualified professional.
A situation in which a child's home culture and the school culture hold conflicting expectations for the child's behavior.
3. What is Cultural Mismatch?
2. What are Paraprofessionals?
Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968). One of their experiments they looked at the relationship between teacher expectations and student performance.