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Transcript of Civil War
What was it? When did it happen? Why is it significant?:
Missouri Compromise Bellringer 1840’s- Britain & America continue joint occupation of Oregon Territory
1844- Democrat James K. Polk calls for annexation of Oregon Territory
Slogan is: “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!”
Northern limit of Oregon Territory
1846: Both countries peaceably agree to current U.S. boundaries and land ownership along 49th parallel “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!” Slave and Free Areas after the Missouri Compromise, 1820 “..the Missouri question aroused and filled me with alarm…I have been among the most sanguine in believing that our Union would be of long duration. I now doubt it much.”
letter to William Short, April 11, 1820
“…like a fire bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the Union.”
letter to John Holmes, April 22, 1820 Thomas Jefferson’s Opinion Farms Larger than 1000 Acres late
1800’s Capital Invested in Manufacturing (In Dollars) during late 1800’s The United States in 1848 None of the territory acquired in the Mexican-American War would be open to slavery
North supports proviso
Do not want more slave states; could give slave states more Congress members
South does not support proviso
Fear shift of power to the North Wilmot Proviso California gains statehood in 1849
Prior to statehood: adopted a state constitution that outlawed slavery
South: Most of CA is below 36ᵒ 30’ line- should be slave state!
President Zachary Taylor (after Polk) supports CA as a free state. The California “Issue” North demands slavery be outlawed in D.C.
South accuses North of not enforcing Fugitive Slave Act of 1793!
South threatens secession
-A formal withdrawal of a state from the Union.
Henry Clay works night & day to make both sides happy… Tensions rising… CA admitted as a free state
Utah and NM territories decide about slavery
Popular Sovereignty (vote on free/slave status)
Texas-NM boundary dispute solved; TX paid $10mil
Sale of slaves outlawed in DC, but slavery may continue
Fugitive Slave Act:
People in free states must help capture escaped slaves and return them to slave states. Compromise of 1850 The Compromise of 1850 was passed with the help of Stephen Douglas
Took 8 months to pass.
Gained support of President Millard Fillmore (Taylor’s successor after his sudden death)
South saw this as the best option… for now. Compromise of 1850 Total Slave Holders during late 1800’s Males Employed in Manufacturing during late 1800’s Jan. 1854- Stephen Douglas (D) introduces a bill to Congress
Divide area west of Iowa into 2 territories
Kansas & Nebraska
Popular Sovereignty– let states choose
Repeal Missouri Compromise- make slavery legal North of 36ᵒ30’.
Passed May 1854
How is the North going to react? The South? Kansas-Nebraska Act Kansas-Nebraska Act Settlers pour into Kansas from N & S.
March 1855-- Kansas holds election for territorial legislature
Thousands of trouble makers arrive from Missouri (slave state) & vote illegally… pistols loaded.
Proslavery candidates win– Set up gov’t @ Lecompton, issue proslavery acts.
Abolitionists set up anti-slavery gov’t @ Topeka
What problems could possibly arise as a result? Bleeding Kansas The power struggle leads to violence
Antislavery settlers form town of Lawrence
Called traitors by proslavery gov’t; call for arrest of townspeople.
May 1856- 800 armed men sweep in
Destroy printing presses, houses, stores, & headquarters. Bleeding Kansas John Brown- Abolitionist
Hears news of Lawrence; thinks 5 men were killed. Outraged!
Brown & followers pull 5 men from their beds @ Pottawatomie Creek– killed them.
Pottawatomie Massacre– led to revenge.
With all the fighting, Kansas gains the nickname “Bleeding Kansas” Bleeding Kansas Mass. Senator Charles Sumner verbally attacks proslavery colleagues after violence in Kansas erupts.
Picks at SC Senator Andrew Brooks a lot.
A. Brooks’ nephew, Congressman Preston Brooks, is fed up..
Beats Sumner over the head with his cane.
What effect might this have had on N/S relations? Violence in the Senate Dred Scott– lived in Missouri until his master moved them to free land above 36ᵒ30’.
Move back to Missouri, master dies.
Scott beings lawsuit to gain freedom. Dred Scott Decision 1856-- Outcome of the case?
Slaves did not have rights of citizens
Scott lived in MO (slave state) when lawsuit was filed– no claim to freedom.
Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional
Interferes with slaveholders’ right to own property- 5th amendment.
How is the South going to react? The North? Dred Scott Decision Abolitionist Movement Radical white abolitionist
The Liberator– paper spread antislavery message
banned in the South
Immediate emancipation of slaves; no payment to “owners”
Extreme views– criticizes churches & gov’t for not ending slavery William Llyod Garrison Felt called by God to help end Slavery
October 16th, 1859- led 21 men into Harpers Ferry, VA.
Capture federal arsenal & distribute weapons to slaves.
Hoped for slave help– none came forward!
Robert E. Lee stormed the building– killed some; captured Brown
Hanged for high treason
Slave owners fear future rebellions- determined to keep slavery. John Brown Terrorist Martyr Two views
What’s your opinion? Born a slave, escaped slavery in 1849.
Became a “conductor” after Fugitive Slave Act passed.
Made 19 trips south; helped 300 slaves to freedom Harriet Tubman Author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)
Slavery not just political– it’s a moral struggle
Book reached many Northern readers
Evoked sympathy for slaves
Abolitionists continue protest over Fugitive Slave Laws
Southerners criticize book as an attack on the South as a whole. Harriet Beecher Stowe Free-Soil Party
Anti- extension of slavery, pro-labor
Not necessarily abolitionists
Secret handshakes & passwords Political Parties Democratic Party
States rights, limited govt, divided on slavery
Opposed expansion of slavery
Made up of old Free-Soilers & Anti-slavery Democrats Political Parties Douglas- popular sovereignty would allow slavery to eventually dissolve
Calls Lincoln an aboltionist
Lincoln- slavery will continue until laws end it
Says Douglas is a supporter of slavery
“I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social or political equality of the white and black races.”
Did think slavery was morally wrong Douglas v. Lincoln Stephen Douglas (Northern-D), John Bell, J.C. Breckenridge (Southern-D), Abe Lincoln (R)
No electoral votes from the south– sectional support Election of 1860 1860 Election Red – Lincoln
Yellow – Bell
Blue – Douglas
Green – Breckinridge
Purple – Non-Voting Territories 1860 Election http://faculty.umf.maine.edu/walter.sargent/public.www/web%20232/sumter%20page.html November 6, 1860: Lincoln Elected President
December 20, 1860: South Carolina secedes
January 9, 1861: Mississippi secedes
January 10, 1861: Florida secedes
January 11, 1861: Alabama secedes
January 19, 1861: Georgia secedes
January 26, 1861: Louisiana secedes
February 1, 1861: Texas secedes
March 4, 1861: Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated Election of 1860 Confederate states of America
Jefferson Davis is elected president The Confederacy is Formed The South
Secedes South Carolina Secedes
December 20, 1860 1861 “Apprehension seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession of a Republican Administration their property and their peace and personal security are to be endangered.
There has never been any reasonable cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspection. …. I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.
…there needs to be no bloodshed or violence, and there shall be none unless it be forced upon the national authority. The power confided to me will be used to hold, occupy, and possess the property and places belonging to the Government…..
We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection…." Excerpt, First Inaugural Address
Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America
March 4, 1861 “For myself, I am free to declare that the election of LINCOLN (about which I entertain no doubt) ought to be regarded as an act of determined hostility; and I regard it, also, as immediately threatening the peace and safety of the South.
As such, we should not wait till we experience the first or least of its pernicious consequences; but, foreseeing them, put ourselves at once in the attitude of independence, and thus escape or be prepared to defend ourselves against them.
It may be that conflict and bloodshed will ensue.”
F.D.Richardson, Esq. of South Carolina Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address
The Public Reacts http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/fort-sumter/fort-sumter-maps/animated-map/ Union: Major Anderson
Confederacy demands surrender or they attack
Lincoln faces two options:
Order attack on Confederates
Evacuate the fort
Instead Lincoln decides to just send supplies, leaving the decision to Jefferson Davis Fort Sumter Fort Sumter Fort Sumter Davis chooses war.
April 12th, 1861– Confederates fire on Fort Sumter, Anderson surrenders soon after Fort Sumter Secession after Battle at Fort Sumter
April - June, 1861 The Confederacy follows soon after Lincoln calls for volunteers to join the army- April 15th After the battle… North has advantage in political leadership
Jefferson Davis- Confederate President- can’t get confederacy to work together to pursue war effort
Abraham Lincoln- Union President- says war was only used to preserve the Union
“govt of the people, by the people, and for the people” Leadership Robert E. Lee Ulysses S. Grant Leadership Union has greater economic resources
Industry, food production, railroad tracks, manpower, Navy
South depends on King Cotton
Trade with Britain for manufactured goods & ships
South also has first rate Generals, military tradition & a cause. Resources Strategic 3-point plan by the Union
Blockade Southern ports
Union boats move up Mississippi and split Confederacy
Capture Confederate capital at Richmond, VA. Anaconda Plan First major bloodshed– July 21, 1861
Union forces heading for Confederate capital meet Confederate forces camped at Bull Run Creek
Confederates led by Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
Union loses after Confederate reinforcements arrive
“Bull Run as secured our independence” First Battle of Bull Run First Manassas (Bull Run) Second Manassas (Second Bull Run) Union General McClellan headed towards the Confederate capital; attacked by Gen. Lee’s army in a series of battles– The Seven Days’ Battles
Lee now decides to move on the Union Capital
Aug 29th-30th, 1862– Lee attacks Union troops in Maryland– Confederate victory Second Battle of Bull Run Antietam McClellan learns that Lee’s and Stonewall Jackson’s armies were separated for a moment
Sept 17th, 1862 Union forces attack Confederate forces at Antietam (a creek)
Bloodiest single-day battle in American history
Result of Antietam-- Confederate army left Maryland and went back into VA– Union claims victory. Antietam Lincoln now had a victory to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
Challenge he faced:
U.S. Constitution did not prohibit slavery. Individual states could outlaw slavery, but not the U.S. Gov’t. Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863– Issues proclamation
Military action aimed at states in rebellion
Freed slaves only behind Confederate lines
Allowed free blacks to enlist in Union army Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln orders Union Army to seize Confederate supplies– free slaves! 1% of Northern population; 10% of Union Army by end of war
Discriminated against in military
Separate regiments commanded by white officers
Assigned to labor duty– higher risk of death
Not treated correctly as POW’s African-Americans in the War July 1863, the 54th Massachusetts, an all African-American regiment, attacked Fort Wagner (near Charleston)
No military training on this type of attack
Assault was a failure but the act brought new recognition and respect to African-American soldiers 54th Massachusetts Summer of 1863 Arrives At this point in the war, the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia had a winning record.
Confederate General, Robert E. Lee had a plan to move his army north. 4 reasons Lee invaded Pennsylvania :
to disrupt the Union’s ability to attack the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia
to draw the United States Army away from the safety of Washington, D.C. and fight them in the “open”
to “live off the land” and collect supplies to take back to Virginia
to win a decisive victory on Northern soil in the hopes of bringing the Civil War to a close Summer of 1863 On July 1st, 1863 Union forces clashed with Lee’s Army Gettysburg After three days of fighting
July 1-3, 1863… … and 51,000 casualties
killed, wounded, or missing Gettysburg The Confederate Army of
Northern Virginia was defeated Lee and his army left Pennsylvania and retreated back to Virginia.
Never again would the Confederates invade a Northern state in large numbers. The dead were buried
in quickly dug
battlefield graves. Vicksburg Vicksburg, Mississippi One of the last Confederate holdouts on the Mississippi.
Grants army has victories through Mississippi and sets its sights on Vicksburg
Barrages the city with gunfire for several hours a day
Finally, Confederate commander, Pemberton, asks for terms of surrender. Vicksburg After 47 days, Pemberton surrendered Vicksburg to Grant on July 4, 1863.
5 days later, the final hold out falls to the Union Vicksburg In the Confederate States
The losses at Vicksburg and Gettysburg decreased the morale of the Confederate States and its armies.
For most of the remainder
of the war the Confederates would be fighting on
the defensive. In the United States
The victories at Gettysburg
and Vicksburg increased
the morale of the United States and its armies. Many people now felt that the war
might be won. The Aftermath At a ceremony held to dedicate cemetery in Gettysburg
Lincoln made a 2 minute speech– changed the way Americans thought of the Unites States
**Turn to page 361 in your book and read the speech** Gettysburg Address William Tecumseh Sherman- commander of the Union military division of Mississippi
Believer of “total warfare”
Begins his destructive March to the Sea in Atlanta, GA
Burned most of the city; destroyed railroad tracks Sherman in Atlanta Union comes upon Confederate troops at the town of Gettysburg– take defensive positions on hills surrounding town
Confederates take the town and are victorious at first Gettysburg “The only way the people of Atlanta can hope once more to live in peace and quiet at home, is to stop the war, which can only be done by admitting that it began in error and is perpetuated in pride. We don’t want… your lands, or any thing that you have, but we do want and will have a just obedience to the laws of the United States.” -Sherman Sherman’s March to the Sea Election of 1864 George McClellan
war had gone on long enough
South should be allowed to secede in order to save American lives.
slavery would continue in the Southern states. Abraham Lincoln
war must be won
slaves should be freed
Union preserved at all costs. Election of 1864 Lincoln fears he will lose unless changes happen
Union armies soon have many more victories in the South
Lincoln won re-election in 1864 Election of 1864 March 1865- End of the war is nearing
April- Davis abandons Confederate capital
Lee & Grant met April 9th, 1965, to negotiate surrender at Appomattox Court House (VA)
The Civil War is over. Appomattox Court House After the surrender, the difficult task of rebuilding and reunifying the country began. Rebuilding Reconstruction Campaign through Georgia.
Atlanta to Savannah then through the Carolinas.
Path of destruction-- "scorched earth policy" Sherman’s March April 14, 1865, Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth
Lincoln died the next morning
First time in history that a president had been assassinated The War is Over By the end, the south had suffered devastating damage to factories, farms & transportation systems, and men.
The gov’t put in place Reconstruction policies
Re-establish full participation of southern states in the Union
Rebuild the United States (unity), not to rebuild the south The War is Over Lincoln’s 10% plan– 10% pledge allegiance to Union, gain congressional seats
Presidential Reconstruction- Andrew Johnson
Remaining Confederate states: Withdraw succession, pledge allegiance, annul Confed. war debts, & ratify 13th amendment.
Radical Repubs say it’s still too lenient! Reconstruction Congressional Reconstruction- 1867
Abolished govt’s of former Confed. states
Split former Confed. into 5 military districts
Set requirements for readmission Reconstruction FREE
VOTE 13th Amendment
Gave citizenship to former slaves
Equal protection, due process of laws
Gave Af.-American men voting rights Amendments to the Constitution Freedmen’s Bureau
Assists former slaves & poor white
Food, clothing, education, medical care
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Gave African Americans voting rights (14th)
Forbade the creation of black codes
Laws that discriminate against Af.-Americans Help and Equality Public Works Programs
Republicans built roads, bridges, orphanages, public school system
Scalawags- White Southerners who joined the Republican Party
Carperbaggers- Northerners who moved south postwar Postwar South Freedmen’s Bureau helped to negotiate labor contracts between former slaves & land owners AND provided a system of courts that protected their rights
“Forty acres and a mule”– freed slaves who followed Sherman received 40 acres & a mule
This land was taken away when former landowners reclaimed the land African Americans Postwar Sharecropping
Landowners grant former slaves/poor whites plot of land (& give them tools/seeds)
Farm land & give a share to the landowners
Individuals supply their own tools/seeds and rent the land African Americans Postwar 1868– Ulysses S. Grant wins the presidential election. Federal gov’t protected rights of freedmen during Reconstruction
Fed gov’t abandon role as protector & African-Americans rights are compromised by southern states
Republicans slowly replaced by white Democrats
“The Solid South” until Civil Rights Era Reconstruction draws to and end Ku Klux Klan
Restore white supremacy
Intimidate black voters in the South
The Klan & other groups killed thousands
Target whites that help African-Americans Ku Klux Klan Amnesty Act– allows former confederates to return to Congress
At the same time, Congress allows Freedmen’s Bureau to expire
Power shift to Southern Democrats Politics Grant lacked political experience– taken advantage of by friends who he appointed.
Word of corruption and scandal surfaced
Liberal Republican Party formed in response Politics Voting restrictions placed on African Americans
Literacy tests, poll taxes, grandfather clause
Jim Crow Laws separated whites and blacks in public and private facilities. Jim Crow 1896- case tested the constitutionality of segregation
Court ruling: separation is legal IF facilities are equal
Set the stage for 60 more years of segregation Plessy v. Ferguson Born a slave, moved up through hard work and determination
Racism will end when black acquire skills and prove economic value to society
Tuskegee Institute- vocational training for Af. Americans in teaching, agriculture, domestic, & mechanical work Booker T. Washington Washington lobbied behind the scenes for equality and rights
Public statements suggested he was willing to accept second class citizenship
W.E.B. DuBois opposed Washington’s views Booker T. Washington Born free– Attended Harvard
Blacks achieve liberal arts degrees
“Talented Tenth”-well educated African American leaders
Achieve immediate inclusion into mainstream American life W.E.B DuBois National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Advocates full social and political rights W.E.B DuBois Born into slavery shortly before emancipation
Once a teacher, then a newspaper editor
Used her position to write about conditions of African-Americans
Anti-lynching advocate, women’s suffrage
Founding member of NAACP, left when it wasn’t militant enough Ida Wells-Barnett