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Bioethics

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by

James Joiner

on 14 May 2014

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Transcript of Bioethics

Intro To Bioethics
Autonomy
Nonmaleficence
Beneficence
Justice
Specification
Balancing
Limitations
Principlism
- an ethical framework that emphasizes the role of a small cluster of middle-level ethical principles: autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice
- this set of moral principles function as an analytical framework intended to express general norms of common morality that are suitable starting points for biomedical ethics.
- from the beginning of recorded history most moral decision-makers descriptively and prescriptively have used these four moral principles;
they represent judgments that are part of - or compatible with - most intellectual, religious, and cultural beliefs.
Principlism
Specification is a process of reducing the indeterminate character of abstract norms and generating more specific, action-guiding content.
Love other people
assist others in accomplishing their goals
help your child with her science project
Balancing
Balancing consists of deliberation and judgment about the relative weights or strengths of principles and values
Autonomy
Justice, Beneficence
Prima Facie Principles: moral obligations are overridable
Autonomy
• Respect for Autonomy - a norm of respecting and supporting autonomous decisions; allowing competent persons to exercise their liberty rights.
- to respect autonomous agents is to acknowledge their right to hold views, to make choices, and to take actions based on their personal values and beliefs.
Conditions of Autonomy:
• Virtually all theories of autonomy view two conditions as essential for autonomy:
- (i) liberty - independence from controlling influences that determine their action
- (ii) agency – capacity for intentional and rational (with understanding) action
Specifications of Autonomy:
- tell the truth
- respect the privacy of others
- protect confidential information
- obtain consent for interventions with patients
Nonmaleficence
- the principle of nonmaleficence imposes an obligation not to inflict harm on others.
- requires of us that we not intentionally create a needless harm or injury, either through acts of commission or omission.
Specifying Nonmaleficence:
- (i) do not kill
- (ii) do not cause pain or suffering
- (iii) do not incapacitate
- (iv) do not cause offense
- (v) do not deprive others of the goods of life
Beneficence
the obligation to act for the welfare/benefit of others
• Principles of positive beneficence support an array of moral rules of obligations:
- (i) protect and defend the rights of others
- (ii) prevent harm from occurring to others.
- (iii) remove conditions that will cause harm to others
- (iv) help persons with disabilities
- (v) rescue persons in danger.
Justice
fair, equitable, and appropriate treatment in light of what is due or owed to persons.
Specification of Justice
- do not discriminate on the basis of race, religion, national origin, color, sex, age, disability.
- provide a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal to address criminal charges
1. It is mechanistic and empty
2. Doesn't resolve conflicts of principles
3. Neglects character/virtue, women's perspective, community, tradition.
Topics in Applied Bioethics
Beginning of Life Issues
End of Life Issues
Clinical Ethics
Public Health Ethics and Policy
Culture & Medical Practice
Biomedical Research & Technology
-In Vitro Fertilization, Infertility, & Reproductive Ethics
-Embryonic Stem-Cell Research & Stem-Cell Therapy
-Abortion
-Therapeutic Cloning
-Surrogacy
-Advance Directives, Power of Attorney, & Advanced Care Planning
- Suicide & Euthanasia (active, passive, and physician assisted)
- Futility, Quality of Life & Hospice Care
-Refusal of lifesaving or life-prolonging medical treatment
- Confidentiality, Disclosure, & Informed Consent
- Current Laws (State/Federal) & Biomedical Ethics
- Professional Errors, Malpractice, & Disclosure
- Moral Distress & Intra-Professional Tensions
- Rationing & Scarce Resource Allocation
- Rights & Health Care
- Organ Donation & Transplantation
- Bioterrorism, Public Health, & Civil Liberties
- Cross-Cultural Concerns & Challenges
- Religion, Spirituality, & Medical Care
- Native American Culture & Medical Practice
- Eugenics, Gene Therapy, Genetic Engineering & Enhancement
- Nanotechnology & Nanomedicine
- Biobanking
- Human & Animal Research/Experimentation
Ethics Committee
Available to meet with staff, providers, patients and families regarding ethical dilemmas or moral distress.
Email to: ethicsconsult@nahealth.com or contact

Patient and Family Centered Care (PFCC)
Patient Relations are here to help. Call 214-3568.

Magellan Employee Assistance Program
Provides confidential counseling to employees. 1-800-523-5668
or https://www.magellanassist.com.

Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
BH Services Manager Christine Chisholm Tures: x16410,
or BH Director Judy Mason: x16313

Palliative Care at FMC
Available for patient consults and a wonderful resource for end-of-life questions and concerns. (928) 773-2305.
FMC Resources
Full transcript