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DNA Structure and Replication

AP Chemistry 4-5

Vivian Xia

on 22 May 2014

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Transcript of DNA Structure and Replication

DNA Structure and Replication
What is DNA?
Why do Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine, and Guanine bond the way they do?
DNA Replication
Works Cited

What is DNA made of?
Presented By
Victoria Wu
Vivian Xia
Yunyang Wang

AP Chemistry 4-5
DNA is made of two strands of nucleotides bonded together that each consist of three parts, deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, and on of the four nitrogenous bases:
Thymine (T)
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)
Cytosine (C)

SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on DNA Replication and Repair.”
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Clark, Jim. “DNA- Structure.”
DNA- Structure
. 2007. Web. 18 May 2014.
. PowerPoint. 19 May 2014
The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, ed. "DNA (chemical Compound)."
Encyclopedia Britannica Online
. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 19 May 2014.
"Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Fact Sheet."
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Fact Sheet
. 13 June 2012. Web. 19 May 2014.
Picture of DNA – DNA Cubes. Digital image. Digital 3D Art. Web. 20 May 2014.
Kyrk, John. "DNA Replication." Web. 20 May 2014.
DNA cells are the basic building blocks of all living things, and it contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Chemical Formula: C H N
One of the four main nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA
Always bonds with thymine
Adenine is a purine
Important component for the process of cellular respiration, as it is a component of ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Chemical Formula: C H N O
One of the four nitrogenous bases in DNA
Only base that is present only in DNA and not present in RNA
In RNA, thymine is replaced with a similar base, Uracil
Always bonds with adenine in the double helix structure
Chemical Formula: C H N O
One of the four nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA
Always bonds with cytosine in the double helix structure
Guanine is a purine base
Has a high boiling point of 350°C
Insoluble in water, but soluble in dilute acids and bases
Chemical Formula: C H N O
one of the four nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA
Always bonds with guanine
Cytosine is a pyrimidine base



Adenine and thymine bond together in terms of 2 hydrogen bonding.
Cytosine and guanine bond together in terms of 3 hydrogen bonding.
Purines and pyrimidines always bond together.
Since adenine is a purine with two H atoms to bond with and thymine is a pyrimidine with two available H atoms to bond with, adenine and thymine always bond together.
Since cytosine is a pyrimidine with three H atoms to bond with and guanine is a purine with three available H atoms to bond with, cytosine and guanine always bond together.
Base Pairs in DNA
RNA is central to the synthesis of proteins.
consists of a long chain of nucleotide units.
Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate.
RNA is usually single-stranded
RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA contains deoxyribose (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom).
RNA has the base uracil rather than thymine that is present in DNA.
"Essential Biochemistry - DNA Replication." Essential Biochemistry - DNA Replication. Web. 19 May 2014.
Freudenrich, Ph.D. Craig. "How DNA Works."
. HowStuffWorks.com, 20 Mar. 2007. Web. 20 May 2014.
"2006 National DNA Day Online Chatroom Transcript."
National Human Genome Research Institute
. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2014.
Step 1: DNA is split by an enzyme called DNA gyrase
"Cytosine." - PubChem. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2014.
"Thymine Structure." N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2014.
Step 2: DNA is unraveled by the helicase enzyme
Step 3: Binding proteins attach themselves to the two strands in order to keep them separate
Step 4: DNA enzyme polymerase adds nucleotides to the single strands that begin to bond with the separated DNA strands
Step 5: DNA is checked by enzymes that are related to polymerase
Step 6: Ligase, an enzyme, seals the new DNA
Step 7: Process repeats over and over again
DNA Mutation
"What Is Mutation?"
What Is Mutation?
N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2014.
"DNA and Mutations."
DNA and Mutations
. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2014.
What is a Mutation?
Evolution would not occur without DNA mutation!
Causes of Mutation
1. DNA copied itself incorrectly
2. Organism exposed to chemicals or radiation
A mutation is an alteration in DNA structure.
Occurs when there is a slight defect in the process of replicating DNA.
DNA affects an organisms physical appearance, behavior, and physiology.
Cytosine and Guanine Bonding
DNA Structure and Replication: Crash Course Biology #10
. Perf. Hank Green. YouTube. YouTube, 02 Apr. 2012. Web. 21 May 2014.
Strand of DNA
Lewis Structure of Adenine
Lewis Structure of Thymine
Lewis Structure of Guanine
Lewis Structure of Cytosine
Section of RNA
Full transcript