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Japan: A Global History Perspective
Transcript of Japan: A Global History Perspective
Geography of Japan
"The Land of the Rising Sun"
: A group or chain of islands
Isolated by the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean
Less Cultural Diffusion
Protected From Attacks by sea
Japan is Located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is home to 452 volcanoes and experienced 90% of the earth's earthquakes.
Japan itself records an average of 1,500 earthquakes yearly.
As an Island Nation Japan obtains resources from the Sea
Sushi, a popular snack
Seaweed and Kelp form a staple of diet, including nori the outside of maki sushi
Shipping Develops Sooner
Protection from Invasion
, Chemical Fertilizers, and Land Reclamation used to increase arable land
Japan’s biggest farm region
Area surrounding & north of Tokyo
Rice grown here.
Volcanic Activity has ensured that Japan has many hot springs or Onsen
Onsen are a large part of tourism and traditional culture in Japan, Even a place to relax with coworkers and friends.
Due to the mountains:
rivers are short
have many rapids & waterfalls
4 Seasons, Hot summers, cold winters
Climate of Japan
Tidal wave caused by an offshore earthquake.
On March 11, 2011 A devastating Tsunami caused by an 8.9 scale earthquake causes untold damage to the eastern coast of Japan.
Highly urban, industrialized nation.
High level of technology.
Tokyo – Yokohama is among most crowded on the globe
Space is difficult to come by
Cost of living is very high
~ 150% of NYC
Typical Japanese Apartment/Home
Infamous Japanese "Coffin Hotels"
Has greatly effected their history
To get resources they either have to:
(buy) them from others, which costs them money, or
places that have resources
Japan is especially short of
; they import 90% of their oil from the Middle East
Effect on Japan’s foreign policy
Japan & Operation Desert Storm
Geography and Effects
Stress conformity, fitting in, blending in
Individuality not valued as highly
The People of Japan
The Ainu People
Original settlers of Japan
Taller than Japanese; black wavy hair; hairier.
Arrived some time before 100 B.C.E.
Set up matriarchal society.
Pushed to Hokkaido by Japanese
Traditionally discriminated against by the Japanese
? – 645 C.E.
Few written records
Uji or Ujigami
decentralized power system
Japan divided into separate kingdoms ruled by different ujis(clans).
develops toward end of period.
Effect on Japanese society:
Cannot be replaced
Heads gov’t & religion
Current Crown Prince = Hisamoto
Imperial Line descended from Ameratsu, the Sun Goddess
Susano: Thunder God
The Mirror, the Sword, and the Gem; gifts from Ameratsu to the Imperial Line
Dragons and Demons play a large part in traditional Japanese Mythology
Native Japanese religion.
respect for nature
Mythology is part of Shintoism.
No sacred text like the Bible, Qur'an, Torah, or Vedas
(720 CE) does cover the Japanese
, the rule of Gods and Spirits, and the rule of early Emperors.
No holy text.
No strict guidelines or rules.
Ceremonies are part of the religion, but optional.
Torii (Red Arches)
Shrines often in places of great physical beauty
Kami are Spirits.
All things have kami
Kami can be divided
Kami are worshiped and even "stored" in shrines
Claims to be descendent of Ameratsu Omikami
Claims land of Japan
1st Emperor of Japan
His rule begins Imperial period ~ (660 B.C.E.)
No true historical records of his reign (no primary documents or evidence)
645 C.E - 1159
Central government set up under the Emperor.
Kyoto was the capital.
“Sinoization of Japan” takes place.
Early Japanese culture develops.
Centralize Power in the hands of the Emperor
Uji Clans/ States become Provinces
Confucian Ideas permeate culture/ government
Emperor rules by "Decree of Heaven"
5 –7 centuries A.D.
Japan experiences a great deal of
from China. “Borrows” much of Chinese culture. Includes:
Kanji = Chinese written language…
Kana = Japan’s simplified written language
, Kimonos, Chopsticks
The Chrysanthemum Throne
Believe satori is a result of one’s own effort.
Satori not achievable for all.
Religion favored by the samurai.
Siddhartha Gautama is the founder of Buddhism
Meditation & Enlightenment
(buddha = the enlightened one)
Life is suffering.
Suffering is caused by desires for earthly things.
To end suffering, you must end your desires.
To end desires, you must follow The Eightfold Path of Conduct.
Four Noble Truths
Reincarnation( Cycle of Rebirth)
Believe all can achieve satori.
Religion favored by commoners.
Pray to Bodhisattva Amida (god of light)
Chant “namu Amida butsu” (Hail Amida Buddha)
Crafted to represent and evoke scenes of nature
Aid in meditation
The gravel or sand is raked to represent water
Rocks are mountains and small bushes trees
Developed initially as a "trial of strength"
Also had roots in the Shinto faith
An example of Sinoization and
Most likely began in the Song Dynasty in
Involves creating complex designs and shapes using simple squares of colorful paper
The Chrysanthemum Throne
Japan's Imperial Line is the longest, continuous ruling Imperial Family
The current Emperor (Akihito) is the 125th monarch
Today the Emperor of Japan is a
much like the Queen of Great Britain
Age of the Samurai
Defeated the Fujiwara and Taira Ujis in 1192 C.E.
which means "tent government"
was a feudal military dictatorship
) by the Emperor.
The Fujiwara Uji had begun to dominate the court, and through control of access to the Emperor and the Imperial family the Fujiwara had tentative control over Japan
Feudal Japanese Society
Japan’s system of gov’t from 1158-1868.
Ties of loyalty and duties among Shoguns, daimyos, samurais, & peasants.
"Large Land Owners/Clan Heads"
"Large Land Owners/Clan Heads"
Jito: Land Stewards
Jito: Land Stewards
Military dictators of feudal Japan
. Had complete power over Japan.
Period when one family ruled as shōgun =
The shōgun’s headquarters were in the city of Kamakura.
Appoints local leaders (
) who are loyal to him.
Large land owners
Heads of their Uji (clans)
Ran sections of Japan for the shōgun.
Chosen by shogun.
Collect taxes and enforce laws for shōgun.
Rich had special privileges.
Loyal, dedicated warriors of feudal Japan
“The Way of the Warrior”
code of behavior
Swords, Naginata, Yumi, later matchlock rifles
Poor farmers, they rent land from the daimyos.
Required to work for the daimyos for free (usu. 2 weeks per year).
Made up largest percentage of population.
Work for the daimyos.
Ran court systems
In times of peace they acted as law enforcement
In wartime, they’re military commanders (officers)
(cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr
Nobles, Lords, Landowners
Paid Soldiers, Landless
(90% of the Population)
Crafts People, Metalworkers, Skilled Laborers
Salespeople, Those who make or produce nothing, the Lowest Class
The 47 Ronin
What are “ronin?”
Master-less or landless samurai, often served as mercenaries
What samurai characteristics do they exhibit?
martial skills, weapons,
Why would Japanese parents hold them up as role models for their children?
loyalty, sacrifice, persistence, and honor
Early 18th century
47 Ronin plotted to avenge their disgraced master Asano
Led an assault on a heavily defended manor and killed their former master's nemesis
The Class Structure of Feudal Japan
The Mongol Invasions of Japan
Mongols under Kublai Khan seek to extend their empire to Japan.
First attack in 1274
Typhoons hit the Mongol ships
Samurai defeat the survivors
Attack again in 1281
Typhoons hit the Mongol ships
Samurai defeat the survivors
Japanese Interpretation =“kamikaze” a "divine wind" that protects their nation
Shogun defeats Mongols but the expense & effort weakens him and he’s overthrown by rivals.
Long period of fighting & unrest.
Frequent, continuous fighting.
Different daimyos fight for control of Japan.
Civil War 1333-1600
Ended the civil war by defeating other daimyos.
Died before he could set up a new government.
Conquered over 1/3 of Japan
Appointed new daimyo & set up new feudal system.
Died before he could run a new government.
Rules Japan after the civil war.
Benefits from Hideyoshi & Nobunaga’s work.
Blames Japan’s long civil war on foreign influence.
Sets up the …
themselves from the rest of the world. No trade, no contact.
Long period of peace.
Focus on & develop unique culture.
Fall behind the rest of the world.
"Nobunaga pounds the rice cake, Hideyoshi kneads it, and in the end Ieyasu sits down and eats it."-Japanese Proverb
Portrait by a Jesuit Painter
1853-54 Matthew Perry “opens” Japan to the world.
Japan recognizes they’re behind the Europeans & Americans.
A “loss of face” for the whole nation of Japan.
1854 Japan signs a treaty allowing U.S. to trade in Japan.
Other nations soon follow.
Japanese look to “regain face.”
Blame the shōguns and look to change their government.
Frequently arranged by one's superior or lord
Divorce possible but not frequent as it would shame the arranger
Women in charge of the children, the house, and finances
Samurai women expected to train with the naginata spear
Some merchants would arrange to marry into a samurai family for large financial gain
The US "Opens" Japan
One of the "Black Ships" of the American fleet as interpreted by a Japanese artist
Treaty of Kanagawa
takes over and wants Japan to learn foreign ways.
Meiji Era = 1867 to 1912
***A period of Rapid Modernization & Progress***
Japan “adopts & adapts” from European nations.
Gov’t from Europe
Navy from England
Army from Prussia
Technology from England, France, & Germany
becomes national focus & goal.
Military adapts modern weapons
What Europe modernized in 250 years, Japan does in about 40 years!
After the embarrassing Treaty of Kanagawa, many Japanese want to restore the Emperor to power.
The current Emperor was 15 years old!
In 1967 the 15th Tokugawa Shogun resigned
In 1868 the Shogun's forces were defeated in the Boshin War
In the same year the Emperor Meiji formally declares a return to Imperial Power
Meiji means "Enlightened Rule"
Main Aspects of the Restoration
Angered at restrictions on Samurai and their stipends Saigo Takamori and the Satsuma Domain rebels
Battle pits the new
against an elite Samurai force
Film "The Last Samurai" loosely based on the Satsuma Rebellion
Emperor sets up
written in 1889 (
Legislature = Diet
Prime Minister to head gov’t
All adult males can vote
Samurai restricted; can’t carry swords
Students sent abroad to study foreign ideas.
Changes Under the Meiji Government
Progress of Steam Power in Japan, Wood block Print
Edo: 1865 Hand-colored Panorama
Samurai and Conscripts class at Taharaza
The Last Charge of the Samurai
Taught in schools
divinity of Emperor & absolute loyalty to him
Japan's right to spread across Asia
Giving your life to the Empire was your duty
1890 every Japanese child/citizen takes an Oath of Loyalty and Service to the Emperor"
Most other nations thought China would easily win
Japan devastated China, destroyed an entire fleet, and Chinese dead amounted to 35,00 to Japan's 5,300 combat casualties
Gave Japan Taiwan, Port Arthur, Liaodong Peninsula, and other Islands
Russia, jealous and looking to expand power in Asia convinces Germany and France to Block parts of the Treaty (Triple Intervention)
Russia takes control of Port Arthur ( a warm-water Port) and Liaodong Peninsula
Japanese at home furious, riots, assassinations
Treaty of Shimonoseki
1904-1905 Japan vs. Russia
Japan destroyed the Russian Pacific fleet with minimal losses
, the lengthy combat would end up costing thousands of Japanese lives
Japanese emerge victorious
Russians send a 2nd fleet to attack Japan from the Baltic Sea (in Europe)
The fleet is denied access to the
by Britain who had formed an alliance with Japan
The Japanese fleet destroys the 2nd Russian Fleet at the
Battle of Tsushima
Pres. Theodore Roosevelt (won Nobel Prize for negotiations)
Treaty of Portsmouth
Did not let Japan keep the majority of the land they had fought for
Treaty of Portsmouth
Russia lost 147,000 tons of shipping sunk and 58,000 tons captured or interned compared to Japan’s 300 tons sunk
4,830 Russian sailors have been killed and 6,000 captured compared to 117 Japanese killed
Japanese public reaction
Furious, riots, uproar, leads to increased hard-line and right-wing movements to gain power,
Militarism on the rise
Belief in the "invincibility of the Japanese Navy
Issues: control of Sakhalin Island & fishing rights in waters north of Japan
(Japan would lose)
Japan won several great victories
First Sino-Japanese War
1894-1895 China vs. Japan
Japan challenges China for control of Korea
Gen. Hideki Tojo
Head of Army & Military forces; ran the gov’t as dictator
Adm. Isoruku Yamamoto
Educated in US; Head of Japan’s Navy
Technically Head of State
The Showa Emperor
Leaders of Japan's Militarism
The Mukden Incident/ Invasion of Manchuria
Japan desired the rich coal and metal resources of Manchuria (N. China)
Staged an attack on a Japanese RR Line,
Blamed the Chinese
Used as an excuse to invade and take over
League of Nations
unable to stop them
Weakness of the
League of Nations
1933 Japan withdraws from League
1937 Japan Invades mainland China
Mao & Chiang unite to fight the Japanese
Later becomes part of the Pacific War (World War II)
Annexation of Korea
In 1910 Japan
Russian and China were unwilling and unable to stop the industrialized and militaristic Japan
Second Sino-Japanese War
“Rape of Nanjing”
Nanjing had been the capital of Chiang Kaishek's ROC
Chiang fled, but ordered city never to surrender
Japanese take city and begin a campaign of slaughter, rape, and looting
Estimates range from 200,000 to 300,00 Chinese civilians are murdered, frequently in terrible ways or mutilated.
Two japanese officers entered a contest to determine who could kill the most chinese by beheading them with a sword, their progress was reported in Japanese newspapers like a sports score
U.S. upset by Japan’s aggression.
But US public doesn’t want to get involved in war (isolationism).
US "complains" to Japan.
In May of 1941, Pres. F. Roosevelt stops sale of oil, aluminum, & other raw materials to Japan.
Japan’s view of this
US trying to strangle Japan
US may be getting ready for war
America's Reaction to Japanese Aggression
World War II
Japan Needed Natural Resources
Saw war with the US as imminent
Adm. Yamamoto’s plan to cripple US Pacific Fleet
Dec. 7, 1941
Surprise attack on the Naval Base of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii
A tremendous success for Japan.
2,403 killed; 1,178 wounded.
169 planes destroyed; 159 damaged
21 major naval ship sunk or badly damaged (including all our battleships).
29 planes; 5 midget subs; 64 people killed + 1 P.O.W.
Dec. 8, 1941
President Franklin Roosevelt Speech
The US Declares War
U.S. crippled by Pearl Harbor attack.
US declared war on Germany, Italy, & Japan.
US focused on Germany & Italy first. Why?
Allies Britain and USSR barely hanging on
Pacific Fleet would take time to rebuild
"In the first six to twelve months of a war with the United States and Great Britain I will run wild and win victory upon victory. But then, if the war continues after that, I have no expectation of success."
Admiral Yamamoto, 1940
The Sleeping Giant
From Dec. 7, 1941 through May 1942,
Japan is undefeated.
Spread out over a huge area.
Drive the US out of the Philippines
Japan also attacked England & France.
The Pacific Theater
June 1-3, 1942.
Largest naval battle in history.
US Code-Breakers vital to victory
New US tactics.
First US victory over Japan.
Turning point of the war
Trouble facing the US.
Heavily fortified Japanese bases
Skip fortified islands
Attack lightly defended islands
Create a strategic and logistic network
Eventually be in position to attack Japan home islands
Liberating the Philippines
US had been driven out by the Japanese in 1942"I shall Return" -promise made to the Philippine people upon the US retreat from the Philippines
US General Douglas MacArthur & US promise
October 1944-Sept 1945
Bataan Death March
US & Filipino soldiers under Gen. Jonathan Wainwright surrendered to the Japanese on April 9, 1942.
were forced to march 90 miles in 6 days.
Subjected to a
buse and starvation, 10,000 POWs
Somewhere between 5,000 and 11,000 never made it to Camp O'Donnell, where fresh horrors awaited.
April – June 1945
79% ~95,000 Japanese SOLDIER casualties
An estimated 100,000 to 150,000 Okinawan civilians died
Many committed suicide or ordered to kill themselves by the Japanese soldiers
Tokyo /Fire Bombing
US Bombing Raids
Battle of Okinawa
"Little Boy" Nuclear Weapon
Why choose this target?
Had not been damaged by firebombing
To provide accurate data on bombs destructiveness
mix of military targets in a large city
~140,000 within 1 year
"Fat Man" Nuclear Weapon
Had not been damaged
Accuracy of data
Show Japan and the world we had more than 1 bomb
73,884 killed, 74,909 injured in blast
an additional 60-80,000 killed due to lasting effects of the bomb
Why again? Why so soon?
August 15, 1945
USS Missouri September 2, 1945
US Occupation of Japan
Vivisections of live subjects
Germ warfare/biologic weapons
3,000-12,000 murdered in the labs
Biologic attacks (fleas, bubonic plague, cholera)led to 400,000 Chinese deaths
Tokyo War Crime Tribunal
Much like the
of Nazis in Europe
16 imprisoned for life
Shiro Ishi (of
in exchange for biological weapons research
Imperial family exonerated
The End of the War
U.S Occupation of Japan
The US Army stayed in Japan after the war.
The U.S. put
Gen. Douglas MacArthur
in charge of Japan
Japan's New Constitution
Japan not allowed an army/navy/air force
Has a Self-Defense Force (SDF)
Some nationalists argue for an expansion of the military or an abolition of the laws limiting the military
Japan's Economic Recovery
“Adopt & adapt” from the U.S.
US helps them rebuild.
experts sent to Japan
Rapid recovery to become a world economic leader
Lack of military helps provide money to help economy
Corporation & workers more like a team or family in Japan than in the US.
“Cradle to grave” job
Worker loyalty is rewarded
Long hours expected
Business may influence personal life
"Salaryman" - white collar, tie, dress shoes, cog in the machine
Japanese business and corporation heavily influenced and
by the Government
Japan is a major world economic power
Technologically advanced nation
Ministry of International Trade & Industry’s role
Legacy of the
US-Japan Trade Imbalance
Modern Day Issues
School days per year: 180 (NYS)
Days per week: 5
Average HW per day: 1-2 hours
Corporal Punishment: Not allowed
% Graduate HS: 75%
% Graduate college: 58%
School days per year: 240
Days per week: 51/2
Average HW per day: 3-4 hours
Corporal Punishment: Allowed ( ~encouraged!)
% Graduate HS: 89%
% Graduate college: 48%
Jukus- Cram Schools
Competition- Students compete to get into good high schools
Pressure - Parents, cliques, For your future
Effect on your life
Maritime Territory Disputes
Battle of Midway
Battle of the Coral Sea
May 4-8 1942
First naval battle ever in which the main ships
never directly fight
or even come into visual range
An aircraft carrier battle
Today, Iwo Jima is a sight of Marine Corp pilgrimages
Films "Flags of Our Fathers" and Letters from Iwo Jima" describe the conflict from the American and Japanese viewpoints respectively
Feb – Mar 1945
First attack on Japan's
Massive seaborne invasion
11 miles of tunnels bunkers and hidden defenses
22,000 Japanese killed and 6,000 Americans.
Japan experienced a 99% fatality rate
US marines faced a 37% KIA or wounded casualty rate
The Raising of the Flag on Mount Suribachi, one of the most iconic images in American history
I am pleased to have the honour of having been chosen as a member of a Special Attack Force that is on its way into battle, but I cannot help crying when I think of you, Mum. When I reflect on the hopes you had for my future ... I feel so sad that I am going to die without doing anything to bring you joy.
—Ichizo Hayashi, last letter home a few days before his final flight. April 1945
by fighters laden with explosives and gasoline
Meant to damage large Allied ships
Sunk between 37-47 ships, damaged between 300 and 400 others.
Meant to mimic the
that protected Japan from the Mongol Invasions during the Feudal Era
Pilots were expected to be glad to
give their life for the Emperor
, although evidence and letters show this was not always the case
It is easy to talk about death in the abstract, as the ancient philosophers discussed. But it is real death I fear, and I don’t know if I can overcome the fear. Even for a short life, there are many memories. For someone who had a good life, it is very difficult to part with it. But I reached a point of no return. I must plunge into an enemy vessel.
To be honest, I cannot say that the wish to die for the emperor is genuine, coming from my heart. However, it is decided for me that I die for the emperor.
What did Iwo Jima & Okinawa show us about Japan’s attitude?
Unwilling to surrender, would rather die
Civilians used in fighting or ordered/commit suicide
Massive US casualties would come of an invasion of Japan
"With the Old Breed" is an excellent book by a WWII documenting Okinawa. "The pacific TV series is based on parts of this book.
13,000 Americans killed, 46% or ~85,000 casualties overall
Fortified and hidden defenses
"The Good Soldiers" a phenomenal book about Okinawa
Suicide Cliff: Where many Okinawans threw themselves rather than face the reputed barbarous US troops.
Many Okinawans were surprised that US troops treated them with kindness and gave them food
Strike at the Japanese Homeland, retaliation for Pearl Harbor, Boost morale in US
"It was hoped that the d
amage done would be both material and psychological.
Material damage was to be the destruction of specific targets with ensuing confusion and retardation of production. The psychological results, it was hoped, would be the r
ecalling of combat equipment from other theaters
for home defense thus effecting relief in those theaters, the development of a fear complex in Japan, improved relationships with our Allies, and a favorable reaction on the American people." —General James H. Doolittle, 9 July 1942
Attacked cities and military targets
333,000 killed (civilians and soldiers
"Grave of the Fireflies" an award-winning film about this
Used incendiary bombs (early napalm)
Highly effective against wood and paper construction in Japan
Hiroshima: August 6, 1945
Moreover, the enemy now possesses a new and terrible weapon with the power to destroy many innocent lives and do incalculable damage. Should we continue to fight, not only would it result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but also it would lead to the total extinction of human civilization. Such being the case, how are We to save the millions of Our subjects, or to atone Ourselves before the hallowed spirits of Our Imperial Ancestors? This is the reason why We have ordered the acceptance of the provisions of the Joint Declaration of the Powers.
- Emperor Hirohito
Nagasaki August 9, 1945
Was the Dropping of the Bomb Necessary?
Japan wished to
Japan wanted to oversee their own demilitarization
The Japanese Home Islands, Korea, Taiwan would not be occupied by the Allies (would remain Japanese)
Japan would be allowed to try and punish their own criminals
The Japanese Government was warned from the
Surrender or face "prompt and utter destruction"
Japan's Ministers hoped to hold out or cost enough Allied lives so as to not unconditionally surrender
An Allied invasion of Japan was expected to cost
1.2 Million American casualties and over 260,000 American KIA, these were conservative estimates
The Japanese had close to
on the Home Islands and had conscripted close to
28 Million civilians
into soldier brigades including woman and teens as young as 15.
If Japanese forced suffered casualty rates similar to Okinawa an estimated
14 Million Civilian Casualties
Rape of Nanjing (Nanking)
200,000-300,000 Chinese civilians killed
Over 200,000 abducted women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese Army
Bataan Death March
10,000 POWs killed
Change in government
New constitution; military out of power
Role of the Emperor
A figurehead; no political power
Large Ceremonial and religious duties
Today Emperor Akihito
The "Economic Miracle" or "Japanese Miracle"
Tokyo Stock Exchange
Nikkei 225 Index
Top 3 in the World
Japanese Business and Government
Maglev Bullet Trains
Work 'til you Drop!
During the 1980's and early 1990's Japan had a superior balance of trade with the United States, leading to competitiveness and economic worries in the US.
Some argued that Japan's overly protective tariffs and laws made it difficult for US companies to compete.
School Textbooks in Japan are written by private companies
They MUST have government approval
Critics in Japan, China, Korea, and around the world have complained about attempts to "whitewash" Japan's role in WWII. Some have...
Denied the existence of Comfort Women
Denied forced labor of Chinese and Koreans
Denied the existence of Unit 731
Denied the Rape of Nanjing
Denied that Japan actually "invaded" China and Korea
Why is this an Issue?
The Power to re-write the Past is the Power to Change History. That which the Collective Conscious Denies can be said to have Not Happened
As the demographics of Japan's population change, there will be less people of "working" age supporting many elderly and retired.
Japan has a relatively low birthrate and restricted immigration.
Occurred March 11, 2011
Moved Honshu (main island) 8 ft east!
In places over 133 ft in height
and thousands injured
Cost to Japan estimated at
Led to ....
The Tsunami severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Reactor
The Plant suffered a Level 7 Meltdown, the 2nd worst in history
Soil and water is still contaminate up to 30-50 km away
Led to a backlash against Nuclear power and Protests in Japan.
Japan currently has several territorial disputes with China, Korea, and Taiwan.
Small islands with potentially lucrative fishing and natural gas or petroleum resources.
Disputes have led to confrontation and on occasions protests and riots.
The Eightfold Path of Conduct
A success! Japan has become a strong US ally.
The US wanted to Japan an ally and avoid a future war.
Gave the US a base to counter Communist expansion
Spread of Buddhism (Cultural Diffusion, Missionaries)
All the World Powers were shocked that Japan would dare challenge a European Power/ World Power
War began over Japanese resentment over the Triple Intervention and due to Russia and Japan's rivalry for control of Korea and Manchuria
Change in Military