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Grade 8 Understanding Earth and Space Systems

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on 11 March 2015

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Transcript of Grade 8 Understanding Earth and Space Systems

Overview:
Title / Topic: Local Water Systems
In-class periods: 2
Topics
• Local watersheds & waterways
• Great Lakes system

Lesson #4
Activity
1) Manipulate sand plot to create a watershed where water will flow from a higher to lower elevation

Curriculum Connections
• 2.1, 2.4, 2.6, 2.7, 3.1, 3.2, 3.4, 3.5

Title / Topic: Global Water Systems
In-class periods: 1
Topics
• Global water distribution
• Hydrologic cycle
• Salt water versus freshwater

Lesson #2
Activity
1) Read aloud with a picture book.
2)Think-pair-share & creation of class graphic organizer.
Curriculum Connections
• 2.1, 2.3, 2.6, 2.7, 3.1, 3.4, 3.5

Title / Topic: National water systems
In-class periods: 1
Topics
• National water distribution
• Geographic watersheds
• Important water sources (lakes, rivers, wetlands, atmospheric, estuaries, ice & snow, groundwater)

Lesson #3
Activity
1) Investigation and Research Teams: Interpreting a Watershed Map
2) Think-pair-share identify types of watershed
Curriculum Connections
• 2.1, 2.6, 2.7, 3.1, 3.2, 3.5

Title / Topic: Water Facts
In-class periods: 1
Topics
• Unique properties of water (as a vapour, liquid & solid)
• Located in atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere
• Water as a limited resource


Lesson #1
Demonstrations
1) Saltwater & freshwater testing with test strips for chlorine, hardness, pH, and salinity.
2) Perform a test for density of saltwater and freshwater using an egg.
3) Using 100 pennies for a visual representation of the world's available freshwater water.
Curriculum Connections
• 2.1, 2.3, 2.7, 3.1, 3.5
Grade 8 Understanding Earth and Space Systems
Water Systems
Unit Objective
Water and water systems not only influence climate and weather patterns, but it is also a limited resource crucial to life on earth that needs to be managed sustainably.
Activity
1) Glacier, climate and society videos to show class
http://glaciers.uoregon.edu/education.html

Curriculum Connections
• 1.2, 1.3, 2.6, 2.7, 3.4


Activity
1) Read aloud: compare and contrast water usage.
2) Read aloud: carrying pails of water from the well.
3) Water Audit
Curriculum Connections
• 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.2, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 3.2,3.3, 3.4, 3.5


Activity
1) 4 Pics 1 Word

Curriculum Connections
• 1.1, 1.2, 2.6, 2.7, 3.2, 3.4, 3.5


Lesson #5
Title / Topic: Global Water Issues
In-class periods: 2
Topics
• Climate change
• Environmental pollution
• Global Access

Lesson #6
Title / Topic: National Water Issues
In-class periods: 2
Topics
• Water quality (national standards)
• Water pollution
• Water management
• Water and Indigenous Peoples
• Large scale water projects & environmental impacts

Lesson #7
Title / Topic: Local Water Issues
In-class periods: 2
Topics
• Waste water treatment
• How your community, household & individual activities impact local watershed
• Local industries
• Local environmental pollution
• Bulk water removal in your area
• Personal water consumption compared with other local, national & international levels.

Title / Topic: Introduce & Discuss Culminating Task
In-class periods: 1
• Topics for discussion
• Group logistics
• Success criteria
• Learning goal
• Anchor chart
• Questions

Lesson #8
Title / Topic: In-class study periods
In-class periods: 4

Lesson # 9
Title / Topic: Class Presentations & Reflections
In-class periods: 2

Lesson #10
References
Strauss, R., (2007). One Well, The Story of Water on Earth. Toronto, Ontario, Kids Can Publish Ltd.

Nathanson, J.A. (2014) Water Supply System. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/

EBchecked/topic/637296/water-supply-system
National Geographics. (2015). Fresh Water. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgeographic.com/

Service Ontario. (2015). Environment and Energy E-Zone. Retrived fro https://www.ontario.ca/environment-and-energy/e-zone

Service Canada. (2014). Water. Retrieved from http://www.ec.gc.ca/eau-water/
United Nations. (2015). Water. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/water/
1) Water facts
2) Global water systems
3) National water systems
4) Local water systems
5) Global water issues
6) National water issues
7) Local water issues
8) Culminating task
Kathy Tsang &
Pat Spensieri

https://shipbright.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/waterscarcitymap.jpg?w=500&h=285
http://water.usgs.gov/edu/downloads/watercycle/watercycle
http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/lessons/files/2013/06/Great_Lakes_Depth_Profile

https://www. youtube.com /watch?v=QOrVotzBNto
http://wattsupwiththat.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/josh-knobs
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/Contaminacion_del_Lago_de_Maracaibo_2
http://www.hatlarthailand.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/waste-water-treatment-plant-thailanswtp
www.youtube. com/watch?v=Se12y9hSOM0
Learning Goals
Students will be able to:

graphically represent how much freshwater is accessible.

use scientific and technological vocabulary in oral and written work.

Assessment for Learning
Review percentage, estimation, and conversion to ratios as necessary.

Use information from observation of centre activities and debriefing, and want to know from KWL to inform instructional planning.

If students require more practice, extend the activity with additional examples.

Check for understanding.

Water Audit
Freshwater versus Saltwater
Availability
Accessibility
Equity
How salt water bodies of water are created?
Questions to ponder about the diagram
Using the diagram ask the students to discuss how "salts" are eroded from land.

Ask the students if clouds contain salts.

Ask the students if it is easier to float in sea water or fresh water.

Ask students how the density of water can be changed.

Ask the students about any other differences in the properties of pure water and salt water (chemically, electrically).
Properties of freshwater and saltwater
Activity #1 (water testing kit)

Comparing Properties (create a T-chart)
• pH
• Salinity
• Chlorine
• Water hardness


Activity #2 (eggs to measure density)

Comparing Properties (create a T-chart)
• Dissolve
• Water density
• Temperature
Properties of freshwater and saltwater
Availability of freshwater & saltwater
Although 75% of the earth is covered in water:

97% is saltwater
3% is freshwater
1% is available freshwater
Only a portion of this is accessible for use
50% of available freshwater is found in Canada


Availability of freshwater & saltwater
Activity #3

Display a piece of cardboard to which is attached 100 pennies.
Ask: If the 100 pennies represent all of the water in the world, how many represent fresh water?
A volunteer removes 3 pennies and re-attaches them to a piece of blue cardboard.
Discuss the significance of these proportions.
Have the students represent the proportions in other ways (ex. pie chart, Bar graph, etc…).

Learning Goals
Students will be able to:
• identify the various states of water and how they are distributed around the world.
• describe how lakes and oceans affect the
weather in places close to them.
Assessment for Learning
Provide feedback on students’ conceptual understanding, ability to develop a reasoned and informed hypothesis based on prior knowledge, and ability to consolidate relevant information from multiple sources.

Note students requiring guided practice.

Collect and assess for learning.
Global Water Systems
Water cycle
Polar ice caps
Oceans
Climate
•identify factors that affect glaciers and polar ice caps.
•describe how changes to glaciers and polar ice caps might affect local water systems.
Use information from brainstorming to inform instruction.
Activity #1
Read Aloud a Picture Book
Strauss, R. (2007), One Well: The Story of Water on Earth. Toronto, Ontario, Kids Can Press Ltd.
Read one page at a time and then show the corresponding illustration on the electronic whiteboard.
Think-pair share and have them brainstorm some interconnections.
Stress the fact that no new water is created, rather water is constantly changing state.
Facilitate discussion about the water cycle.
Polar Ice Caps
77% of freshwater on the planet is found in solid form (ice).

22% of the freshwater on the planet is found as groundwater and in the soil.
Polar ice caps are located in the frigid polar regions on opposite ends of the Earth.

Polar ice has a large affect on global climate and patterns.
Review of the Water Cycle
Review vocabulary
Create or add to word wall if it already exists in the class.
Have a think-pair-share to review the cycle and then open up to class discussion and review.
Assess at this point if further review is necessary.
Contain 97% of all the water in the world.

Are filled with salts, which make it unfit for human consumption.

Are a huge component to our climate and patterns.
Oceans & Seas
To promote further discussion in the class ask if there are any other bodies of saltwater other than oceans and seas.
Use guided questions to promote further discussion.
Do these large bodies of water interact with the polar ice caps? Explain. (Think-pair-share)
Use guided questions to promote further discussion.
What are some ways polar ice caps can affect our climate? Explain (Think-pair-share)
How do large bodies of water, influence the climate of surrounding places?
Canada is unique because it contains a major portion of the Earth’s Polar Regions within its borders.
Climate
Climate is a long-term phenomena created by the interactions of the land masses, oceans, polar ice caps, the water cycle and powered by the sun's energy and the differences in absorption created by the curvature of the Earth.
Activity
Get an elbow partner and discuss the above statement and create a KWL chart. Then as a class create a graphic organizer for your connections among the different factors affecting climate. Use size of word or object to indicate the degree to which it affects climate. (use electronic whiteboard if possible)
How can polar ice caps affect our local water systems? Explain. (Think-pair-share)
With an elbow partner, find another way of showing the amounts of freshwater as a solid and a liquid on the Earth.
Learning Goals
Learning Goals
Learning Goals
Assessment
Assessment
Assessment
Activity: Construct a Watershed
Activity: Research on Climate and Polar Ice Caps
Activity
Students will be able to:
Determine the basic properties of a watershed
Understand the decisions to locate infrastructures in areas of watershed affect water movement and quantity
Investigate how the disposal of harmful contaminants can have serious consequences
Students will be able to:
Demonstrate an understanding of characteristics of the earth's water systems and the influence of water systems on a specific region
Identify factors that affect the size of glaciers and polar ice-caps, and describe the effects of these changes on local and global water systems
Students will be able to:
Relate a method of pollution prevention through words and art
Name water contaminants
Describe different causes of water pollution
Design a plan for preventing water pollution
Assess the quality and effectiveness of water pollution prevention plans
Local Watersheds and Waterways
That area of land, a
bounded hydrologic system
, within which all living things are
inextricably linked
by their common water course and where, as humans settled, simple logic demanded that they become part of a community
We
all live
in a watershed — the area that drains to a
common waterway
, such as a stream, lake, estuary, wetland, aquifer, or even the ocean — and our individual actions can
directly affect it
. Working together using a watershed approach will help protect our nation's water resources.
Sand plot (with clay mixture)
Manipulate the sand to create a watershed where the water will flow from a higher elevation to a lower elevation with 3 parts
Students may place infrastructures anywhere they like in their watershed
Test watershed with water
Pour a glass of red kool-aid into the headwaters and explain a sewage leak has found its way into the headwaters
http://utah.agclassroom.org/plugins/work/blogger/310/IMG_1004
Climate Change
From more severe and frequent droughts to unprecedented flooding, many of the most profound and immediate impacts of climate change will relate to water
Environmental Pollution
Dirty water is the world's biggest health risk
Toxic chemicals, dirt, trash and disease-carrying organisms are picked up by rain and snow. Resources that lack basic protections, making them vulnerable to pollution from factory farms and industrial plants
Global Access
783 million people, or 11 per cent of the global population, remain without access to an improved source of drinking water
http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/water/
http://www.nrdc.org/water/
Display the Probable Passage Chart and clarify any vocabulary students are unsure of. Students individually use 8 of the words to compose a 1-2 sentence “gist statement,” predicting what they expect to read about in the article, Global warming threatens Arctic
Debrief, discussing which items are facts, which are opinion, and which are difficult to classify and why. Make this discussion visible in a T-chart labeled “fact” and “opinion.”
Display a Choice Board of online resources (on the computer with direct links, if possible).
Pairs select 3 resources. For each website, they read the article using reading comprehension strategies of their and take notes in a comparison matrix, labeling information as fact or opinion.
Students highlight corroborating information across the 3 sources. They evaluate their 3 information sources: Are they credible? (Are authors trustworthy?) Is information reliable (accurate?) Is information timely? (current, up-to-date?)
Activity: Research on Climate and Polar Ice Caps
http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/0509/050929-global-warming.html
4 Pics 1 Word
4 Pics 1 Word
4 Pics 1 Word
Learning Goals
To use appropriate science and technology vocabulary.
Use a variety of forms to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.
To identify various states of water across the country, their relative amount, circulation and the conditions under which they exist.
Demonstrate an understanding of the watershed and how it relates to water management.
Explain changes in atmospheric conditions caused by the presence of bodies of water.
In this lesson, students will learn about pollution and different types of contaminants found in water
Fill in the water contaminants chart
Research a water pollution location in Canada
Create a 4 pic 1 word diagram to display in classroom
Assessment for Learning
Note students’ ability to read and interpret the cross section of a watershed (graphic text), and to extrapolate that into a verbal explanation of “watershed.” Use this information to inform instruction and plan guided practice.
Check for understanding and provide oral feedback.
National Water Sources
Atmospheric water
Estuaries
Groundwater
Lakes
Rivers
Snow & ice
Wetlands
http://www.thirteen.org/h2o/educators_lesson3.html
http://www.thirteen.org/h2o/educators_lesson3.html
Watersheds
No matter where you live, you live in a watershed.

Watersheds are necessary to support the habitats of plants and animals, and to provide drinking water for humans and wildlife.
Think/Pair/Share: Think of at least one way you use our watershed and one way our watershed could be harmed."
Have learners write a short story detailing at least one way their watershed could become polluted, and three reasons why it is important to protect their watershed.
KWL Chart
Probable passage chart to assess prior knowledge and make predictions based on evidence
Critical thinking and research
Understanding of different types of contaminants
Creative pictorial demonstration of understanding
Reflection journal
Watersheds can be very large and span across large territories.
Estuary
Lake
River
Marsh
Large Watersheds
Activity
Investigation and Research Teams Interpreting a Watershed Map

Students locate their community watershed within the larger watershed regions.

Preview the map and provide guiding questions to scaffold location and interpretation of information.

Display and discuss examples of effective flow charts. Model how to create a flow chart.

Teams (1) create a flow chart to represent the path water travels from their community to the lake/ocean, and (2) predict and mark the location of potential negative impacts on their community watershed.

Debrief, emphasizing the interconnectedness inherent in these relationships.
Activity #2
The following slides are pictures of the various components of a watershed region.
Think-pair-share
Identify the feature and the properties associated with it.
Ice & Snow
Groundwater
Atmospheric Vapour
Learning Goals
Students will be able to:

Identify factors that affect local water quality.

Describe how watersheds relate to water management and planning.

Explain how human and nature factors can change the water table.

Use scientific and technological vocabulary in oral and written work.

Compare water consumption of people in Canada with those from another country.

Explain access issues around water.
Assessment for Learning
Provide feedback on skills during collaborative learning.

Groups can also use a checklist.

Review percentage, estimation, and conversion to ratios as necessary, or note which students require guided practice.

Use information from observation of centre activity and debriefing, and Want to Know from KWL to inform instructional planning.
Activity #1
Read aloud
Read aloud
Activity #2
Calculate the average daily use for Canada and compare that to other countries.
Gather a 10L bucket and fill it with water and let the students carry it.
Make connections relative to population.
What is our personal responsibility related to water?

How can we think globally by acting locally?

How does water consumption in different regions of Canada compare to water
consumption in other developed countries and in developing countries?

What choices are families with restricted water availability forced to make?

What are possible health implications for families with restricted water availability?
Look around your homes and take an inventory of cleaners, soaps, solids (garburator) and any other solvents or hazardous chemicals.
Ask where all these chemicals all eventually end-up?
Are there alternatives?

Harmful Chemicals
Wasting Water
Check your toilets - are they low flow?
Are there any leaky faucets or taps?
Are there any other sources of water usage you could look at?
What else can we do?
Water Audit
Guiding Questions
Water Issues
Look for articles in newspapers, magazines and websites about water issues. Bring to class for discussion.
Waste water is the mixture of liquid and solid materials that residents and businesses flush down toilets and empty down sinks and drains every day. This material then travels through the city’s sanitary sewer system to one of four waste water treatment plants.
Toronto's Waste water Treatment Plants are designed to remove solids, chemicals and other undesirable materials in a reliable, cost-effective and environmentally sound way. Our treatment process ensures that the water released to Lake Ontario meets or exceeds all provincial and federal standards.
Waste water
Toronto has four main waste water treatment facilities:

Ashbridges Bay
Highland Creek
North Toronto
Humber
Did you know that in addition to providing quality drinking water and treating waste water, we also need to deal with rain water and melted snow? It may not seem as important as drinking water and waste water treatment, but managing storm water is essential to improving the health of our waterways and reducing basement flooding.
What is Storm water?
What are the possible sources of contaminants?
Is this water treated before going back into the lake? Discuss (Think-pair-share).
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