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Transcript of Homestead Strike
July 22, 1892 Alexander Berkman attempted to take Fricks life by shooting him, and stabbing him.
Other After Affects
1881- Carnegie puts Frick in charge of the Homestead plant.
1882 and 1889 - AA wins two big strikes against Carnegie company. In turn, the AA becomes stronger.
1892 - Feb, AA try to propose higher wages. Frick negotiates lower wages.
1892 - June 29, Union contract expires without an agreement with Frick. Frick locks the workers out of the plant.
1892 - June 30, The workers strike and surround the plant to make sure that no one can get in.
1892 - July 6:
Sheriff fails to break up strike.
Frick hires guards from Pinkerton National Detective Agency.
1892 - July 12, State militia marches into homestead.
300 Pinkertons were hired secretly by Frick to take control of Homestead.
Tried to enter Homestead on two barges.
Told to turn around and go back
They were attacked by the strikers.
Forced to surrender, drawn out at gun point.
Industrialist who expanded the American steel industry
Owner of the Homestead Steel Mill in Pennsylvania.
One of the most wealthy men of the 1800's.
His large profits turned himself into a philanthropist in his later years.
John Pierpont Morgan
J.P. Morgan was a financier, banker,and philanthropist.
He wanted to monopolize the American Steel Industry.
The Homestead Steel Mills general manager.
Frick and Carnegie were quite close.
Frick set the deadline for a contract that included an 18% wage reduction for the Mills employees.
Henry Clay Frick
Owned by Andrew Carnegie, the steel mill is where the strike took place in 1892. The Monongahela river flowed through the plant yard. That happened to be where the pinkertons later entered the steel yard.
Homestead Steel Mill
The Presidential Election
Why did Grover Cleveland win?
Looking back on it
The Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers (AAISTW)
The Battle of July 6, 1892
The Homestead Downfall
By Maddie Geil, Maddie Wesely, Brynn Johnson, and Leah Westmoreland
"And while the law of competition may be sometimes hard for the individual, it is best for the race, because it ensures the survival of the fittest in every department."
In 1901 J.P. Morgan bought the Carnegie Steel company for $480 million. He then merged with other major steel companies to create a trust controlling about 70% of the U.S. steel production.
Wizard of Oz Allegory
-a work in which the characters and events are to be as representing other things and symbolically expressing a deeper, often spiritual, moral, or political meaning
-Henry M. Littlefield first suggested that L. Frank Baum's story "The Wonderful Wizard of OZ" was an allegory on the Populist movement from the 1890's
-Started by farmers and laborers after the civil war.
-Most members of the People's Party lived in the Midwest.
-Farmer's not doing well economically.
-Blamed the currency.
Dorothy and Toto
-Dorothy represents America.
-She sings in Somewhere Over the Rainbow of "where dreams really do come true".
She is singing about America "the land of opportunity".
-Dorothy starts out the story in Kansas where she lives with her Uncle Henry and Auntie Em,
The populist movement was centered in Kansas.
Represent the political change in Kansas and the Populist movement that swept across the area.
Wicked Witch of the East
-Represents Eastern finance.
-Dorothy crushed the witch with her home.
Represents good, common man crushing evil.
-Populists believed industrialists used their power to enslave little ones.
The munchkins and the witch.
The Gold and Silver Standard
-The gold standard was the belief that the U.S currency should be supported with just gold coins.
Bankers and businessmen supported this standard.
-Populists believed that the currency should be supported with both the silver and gold coins.
Farmers thought that the gold standard currency system brought down the price of agricultural products.
Gained support from major silver mining companies.
-The yellow brick road represents the gold standard.
-The silver shoes represent the silver standard.
-The scarecrow represents American farmers.
-He is placed in a cornfield where he stays.
-The fact that he doesn't have a brain suggests the idea that farmers aren't very smart.
-Dorothy and the Scarecrow become good friends.
The average American and farmer help each other.
-Represents and industrialist worker.
-He needs oil to function.
-Doesn't have a heart.
Suggest industrialists don't have a heart or feelings.
-Wicked Witch of the East hacked off his limbs, which got replaced with tin.
Eastern finance ruined and remade these workers.
-Says he could be human if
he only had a heart.
The Tin Man
-Represents William Jennings Brian
-Won the Populist's support
-Ran for President twice
-Jennings was cowardly for not supporting the U.S' war with Spain.
-Was cowardly for making promises and not going through with them
-Was all talk and no action
-Dorothy accused him of picking on things weaker than himself
The Cowardly Lion
-Oz is the abbreviation for ounces, which is used to measure gold and silver.
-The political center of Oz is the Emerald City.
Political center of America is Washington D.C.
-The city is all green, which represents money.
Money is the center of the problems.
-The wizard was insulting and demanding.
-People believed he was all-powerful, and could solve all problems.
OZ and the Wizard
The Wicked Witch of the West
-The Wicked Witch represents the Western U.S.
-The Populists were strongest in the West.
-The Wicked Witch was intent on getting the silver shoes.
The Populists were intent on using the silver standard.
-The west is very dry and water is rare to come by.
-The west was in a drought.
-So Dorothy destroys the Western drought by throwing water on her.
-Once Dorothy returns hoe, she realizes she lost the silver shoes.
-She realizes what she values the most.
-America isn't about the money and power.
-The most valuable thing we have is the people and family we have.
Moral of the Story
The AAISTW was an early steelworkers labor organization.
They represented white, English-speaking, skilled workers.
Joined the American Federation of Labor in 1887.
Eventually taken over in 1935 by SWOC and shortly joined the CIO.
On the night of July 5, 1892, about 300 Pinkertons arrived at barges near the Monongahela River.
Strikers who were on look out saw them coming.
Townspeople and strikers rushed to the river bank.
A gun battle broke out.
The Pinkertons were pinned down to the barges and forced to surrender.
3 workers died
7 Pinkertons died
Occurred on June 29, 1892
Frick had a 3-mile long stockade installed around the factory
Frick wanted to replace the union workers with cheaper nonunion labor.
He used this to keep the unionists protesting outside the plant when he was trying to get nonunion workers in.
Benjamin Harrison's response to the strike was what led to Cleveland's win. Along with the militia being sent in by Pennsylvania's government, Harrison also sent in troops to break up the strikes, which was a decision most people disagreed with.
The Homestead strike occurred in a time where there were many disputes between labor and management across the country.
It was considered the "most prolonged and bitter clothes in American labor history.
Some historians say that this "war" made it seem acceptable to use violence against workers even though their rights were violated.