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Biology PAK 9 Seminar "Classification, Viruses, Bacteria & Immune System
Transcript of Biology PAK 9 Seminar "Classification, Viruses, Bacteria & Immune System
Genus — larger group to which organism belongs
species — specific name for that organism
example: Linnaeus named humans Homo sapiens
means “wise man” — perhaps in a show of hope & optimism Big Rocks
“Things You Should Know” Be able to compare viruses to other cells
Understand ways that organisms are classified into taxonomic groups
Describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of defense from injury or illness in animals;
Summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems; Read Chap. 14, 19, 20, &41 in Holt Biology.
Complete all pages in this PAK.
Microorganism Lab-done in lab room
Virtual Lab Archaebacteria Ancient bacteria
Live in extreme environments
Methanogens, extremophiles (thermophiles and halophiles), and nonextreme archaebacteria are three types of archaebacteria.
The most ancient creatures living on Earth today Organizing the world of organsims The Tree of Life organizes creatures by :
structure & function
how they are built
how they live
organizes them into groups of closely related creatures What variety! What similarity! Diversity of Life
there are so many different creatures on Earth
why are there differences?
Unity of life
all creatures have similarities
why are they so alike? Summary Advent of Multicellularity Groups of cells that live together can have different levels of cooperation:
Colonies- Volvox (Protista)
Aggregations – Plasmodial slime mold (Protista)
True Multicellularity – Green alga (Protista) Genus groupings Classify organisms into broader groups
Species that are closely related are grouped into the same genus
Leopard Panthera pardus
African lion Panthera leo
Tiger Panthera tigris Domain
species Classification Homo sapiens Carolus Linnaeus Father of taxonomy
He proposed his system of naming in 1700s
Each species has a 2 part name (binominal naming system)
species Domain Eukarya Eukarya are classified based on cell interior, multicellularity, and sexual reproduction.
Animalia Eukaryote Prokaryote Classification 6 Kingdom system
No separate organelles in their cells
Separate organelles in their cells
Animals Bacteria & Archaebacteria Pisaster ochraceus Pyrrhosoma nymphula Cyanocitta cristata Why not use common names? But they all have only one scientific name! Why not use common names? Misleading
blue jay, blue coat, corn thief
dog, perro, chien Examples of our planet's diversity Classic question on state exams as well as unit exams is putting this in order from largest to smallest or smallest to largest. Use a mneumonic device to help you memorize this list. See below Does King Phillip Come Over For Good Spaghetti? Eubacteria Are complex and single-celled
Include most bacteria found on Earth.
Different from Archaebacteria due to chemical makeup
Can be helpful or harmful. Starting at the top we see the levels of organization for the Earth. As cells began working together, they formed tissues. Tissues combined to form organs. Organs combined to form Body systems, Body systems worked together for the organism, etc. Watch the video to see how organisms are classified: http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch19/sec01/qc01/hxx19_01_q01fs.htm VIRAL DISEASES To Know Contain a nucleus or cytoplasm
Carry on respiration
Or perform other biological functions Antibiotics Bacterial disease can be fought with soap, chemicals, and antibiotics.
Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Mutations that confer resistance to antibiotics are strongly favored in bacterial populations being treated with an antibiotic.
Because antibiotics have been overused, many diseases that were once easy to treat are becoming more difficult to treat. STREP THROAT SALMONELLA DENTAL CARIES Bacterial Diseases to Know Diplobacteria occur in pairs, such as the diplococcus bacteria that causes gonorrhea Spirillium bacteria have a corkscrew shape Bacteria are very small compared to cells with nuclei Bacteria are very small Importance of Bacteria Bacteria are used to make foods, antibiotics, and other useful chemicals.
Mining companies use bacteria to concentrate desired elements from low-grade ore.
Bacteria are also used to clean the environment and cycle important chemicals in the environment. LYME DISEASE Can get from drinking contaminated water or food.
Results in diarrhea and vomiting which could result in death if fluids are not
Still a major cause of death in the world today. Usually a problem in developing countries. CHOLERA BOTULISM-organism used in Botox treatments Gram Staining Bacteria can be classified according to their cell wall structure. Gram staining can be used to distinguish these two groups On plants & animals
In plants & animals
In the soil
In the extreme cold
In the extreme hot
On the living
On the dead Vaccines contain a weakened or killed virus that provides immunity to the disease. Most viruses have NO cure (Influenza, & HIV), but some viruses like Small- pox have vaccines. LYSOGENIC CYCLE Does not begin immediately
Viral DNA (called a prophage) attaches to the host cell’s chromosomes – lies dormant.
Environmental stimulus sends viral DNA into lytic cycle. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
It is spread through the air, when people who have the disease cough, sneeze, or spit
Most infections in humans result in an asymptomatic, latent infection, and about one in ten latent infections eventually progresses to active disease, which, if left untreated, kills more than 50% of its victims. TUBERCULOSIS Nutrition and Growth Heterotrophic - Most bacteria are heterotrophs and many are aerobic.
Photoautotrophs – Use sunlight for Energy
Chemoautotrophs- Obtain energy by removing electrons from inorganic molecules such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, or methane.
Many are Obligate Anaerobes.
Oxygen = Death
Ex. Clostridium tetani – Tetanus
Some are Faculatative Anaerobes
With or without Oxygen
Ex. Escherichia Coli
Some are Obligate Aerobes
Ex. Mycobacterium tuberculosis AIDS Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV )
Usually attacks helper T cells.
As the helper T cells die, the immune system gradually weakens,
The patient becomes susceptible to other diseases. A virus is a particle that can only be seen with an electron microscope. Latin for “poison” Both Good & Bad… Pathogens
Beneficial & necessary
help in digestion
help plants grow
make foods Swine Flu—A lytic virus LYTIC CYCLE a. Virus attaches to host cell. f. Cell lyses (breaks apart) and new viruses are released e. New viral parts assembled d. Virus DNA commands host cell to make new viral parts b, c. Virus injects its DNA Shapes of Bacteria Can have one of three basic shapes:
Bacilli – rod-shaped
Spirilla – spiral-shaped
Cocci – sphere-shaped
Staphylococci – grape-like clusters
Streptococci – in chains VIRAL REPLICATION Viruses replicate in one of two ways:
Lysogenic Virus Viruses are not cells and are not made-up of cells. They don’t…: Structure of a Virus A virus is surrounded by a capsid (protein coat) which determines the shape of the virus. The capsid contains nucleic acids (either DNA or RNA). Tail fibers for attachment to host cell. http://www.hybridmedicalanimation.com/anim_bacteriophage.html View the link below to see a virus in action!! http://www.hybridmedicalanimation.com/anim_swineflu.html http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch20/sec01/qc06/hxx20_01_q06fs.htm Click on the link below to view a video on the comparison between the lytic and lysogenic cycle. Vaccines Bacteria Typical student pencil lead Clean skin has about 20 million bacteria per square inch Bacteria live EVERYWHERE!! Bacterial Structure Evolution has yielded many species adapted to survive where no other organisms can.
Bacteria differ from eukaryotes by:
their cellular organization
metabolic diversity Bacteria are grouped according to:
their ribosomal RNA sequences
the way they obtain energy. http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch20/sec02/qc03/hxx20_02_q03fs.htm Click on the link below to look at bacterial structure. Gram Staining Click on the link below to watch how gram staining works
http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch20/sec02/qc10/hxx20_02_q10fs.htm Staphylo - bacteria occur in clumps, such as this staphylococcus bacteria that causes common infections of cuts Strepto- bacteria occur in chains of bacteria, such as this streptococcus bacteria that causes some types of sore throats These heterotrophic bacteria digest oil -- remember oil is partially decayed plant and animal cells Click on the link below to see the video
http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch20/sec02/qc09/hxx20_02_q09fs.htm Click on the link below to watch the video above:
http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch20/sec02/qc11/hxx20_02_q11fs.htm Commonly found in undercooked food Caused by bacteria invading small opening in tooth enamel Carried by deer ticks White spots at back of the throat indicate a bacterial inflammation Why an immune system? Attack from the outside & inside- lots of organisms want you for lunch!
we are a tasty vitamin-packed meal
cells are packages of proteins, carbohydrates & fats
no cell wall
Animals must defend themselves against invaders
viruses-HIV, flu, cold, measles, chicken pox, SARS
bacteria -pneumonia, meningitis, tuberculosis
protists-amoeba, Lyme disease, malaria
cancer cells -abnormal body cells Primary vs. Secondary Response HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
infects helper T cells
helper T cells can’t activate rest of immune system
body doesn’t hear the alarm
Transmitted through body fluids
AIDS: Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome
immune system is weakened by HIV virus
infections by other diseases
death from other invading diseases or cancer Diseases of the immune system Thymus B cells
white blood cells that attack invaders in blood
mature in Bone marrow
Patrolling B cells
make antibodies against invader immediately
Memory B cells
can make antibodies quickly the next time
protects you from getting disease more than once B cells & antibodies B cell Specific defense
responds to specific invaders
recognizes specific foreign antigens
white blood cells
B cells & antibodies
T cells 3rd line: Lymphocytes T cells mature in Thymus
Helper T cells
sound the alarm for rest of immune system
Killer T cells
destroy infected body cells
Memory T cells
remembers invader & reacts against it again quickly T cells When a local response is not enough full body response to infection raises body temperature
Higher temperature helps in defense slows growth of germs helps macrophages speeds up repair of tissues Fever IMPORTANT
antibodies pass from mother to baby in breast milk Protecting you from disease Vaccinations advantage:
don’t get illness
long term immunity
produce antibodies for life
works against many viruses & bacteria
not possible against all invaders
mother’s milk gives baby antibodies & keeps baby healthy` Macrophage “eating” bacteria Patrolling white blood cells
attack invaders that get through the skin
recognize invader by reading antigen
surface name tag
“big eaters” 2nd: Generalist, broad range patrols Immune system Non-specific patrol Barriers 1st line:
broad, external defense
“walls & moats”
skin & mucus membranes
broad, internal defense
phagocyte (eating) WBCs
specific, acquired immunity
“elite trained units”
lymphocyte WBCs & antibodies
B & T cells Lines of defense vesicle invaded cell cell
membrane Killer T cell cell
cell membrane Killer T cells destroy infected body cells
T cell binds to invaded cell
secretes perforating protein
punctures cell membrane of infected cell
cell bursts Attack of the Killer T cells non-specific defense
skin & mucus membranes
saliva -“lick your wounds” 1st line: Physical Barriers Lining of trachea:
ciliated cells & mucus secreting cells You need trained assassins to kill off these infected cells! What if the attacker gets past
the B cells in the blood &
infects some of your cells? Attack
Killer T cells! Inflammation
injured cells release chemical signals Swelling Phagocytes Blood clot Pin or splinter Chemical
alarm signals Blood vessel Bacteria Why do injuries swell?
Histamines-increases blood flow
brings more white blood cells to fight bacteria brings more red blood cells & clotting factors to repair antigens say:
“I am an invader” antigens say:
“I am an invader” antigens say:
“I belong here” one of your
own cells disease-causing
chemical name tags on the surface of
“self” vs. “invader” How are invaders recognized? B cells
releasing antibodies invading germs tagged with antibodies macrophage
eating tagged invaders Antibodies Proteins made by B cells that tag invaders in the blood so macrophages can eat them
tag says “this is an invader” gotcha!
antibody attaches to antigen of invader Summary-Immune response Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 10 to 17 days recognition release
forever Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y B cells invader
(foreign antigen) B cells immune response Y Y Y Y B cells Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y “reserves” memory B cells Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y When a local response is not enough-full body response to infection raises body temperature
higher temperature helps in defense
slows growth of germs
speeds up repair of tissues Low fevers stimulate white blood cells to mature.
High fevers can cause seizure, brain damage, and even death. Please click on the link below to watch a short video on primary vs. secondary response:
http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch40/sec03/qc02/hxx40_03_q02fs.htm Click on the link below to play the animation:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter24/animation__the_immune_response.html Click on the link below to view video:
http://my.hrw.com/sh/hxx/0030738024/student/ch40/sec04/qc03/hxx40_04_q03fs.htm Immune system malfunctions Auto-immune diseases
immune system attacks own cells
antibodies attack many different body cells
antibodies causing damage to cartilage & bone
insulin-making cells of pancreas attacked & destroyed
T cells attack myelin sheath of brain & spinal cord nerves
fatal Immune system malfunctions Allergies
over-reaction to harmless compounds
proteins on pollen
proteins from dust mites
proteins in animal saliva
body mistakenly thinks they are attackers Click on the link below to see a video on allergens: