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Biochemistry - subatomic particles, ions/atoms, bonding, reactions, ATP, ph

Miller Levine Dragonfly Book

Melody Hopkins

on 19 July 2016

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Transcript of Biochemistry - subatomic particles, ions/atoms, bonding, reactions, ATP, ph

The particles that move around the nucleus of an atom are called
Van der Waals Forces

When molecules are close together, a
slight attraction
can develop between the
oppositely charged regions
of nearby molecules.
Chemical Bonds
Covalent Bonds

Sometimes electrons are
by atoms instead of being transferred.
Chemical Bonds
The atoms in compounds are held together by chemical bonds.

that are available to form bonds are called valence electrons.
What are the 2 types of bonds?
Chemical Bonds
Radioactive isotopes can be used:

to determine the ages of rocks and fossils.
to treat cancer.
to kill bacteria that cause food to spoil.
as labels or “tracers” to follow the movement of substances within an organism.
Elements and Isotopes

A chemical
is a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom.

C stands for carbon.
Na stands for sodium.
Elements and Isotopes

The subatomic particles that make up atoms are

Van der Waals forces are the result of
unequal sharing of electrons.
ionic bonds.
the bonding of different isotopes.
the chemical combination of sodium and chlorine.
A chemical compound consists of
Electrons mixed with neutrons.
two or more elements combined in a definite proportion.
two or more protons combined in any proportion.
at least three elements combined by ionic or covalent bonds.
Which of the following statements about the three isotopes of carbon is true?
They are all radioactive.
They have different numbers of electrons.
They have the same chemical properties but differ in atomic mass.
They have the same number of protons and neutrons.
The atomic number of a carbon atom is 6. How many neutrons does the isotope carbon-14 have?
The structure that results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds is called a
Chemical Bonds
A covalent bond forms when
electrons are shared
between atoms.
single covalent bond

double bond

triple bond
Chemical Bonds
Ionic Bonds
An ionic bond is formed when one or more electrons are
from one atom to another.

These positively and negatively charged atoms are known as
Chemical Bonds
chemical compound
is a substance formed by the chemical combination of
two or more elements
in definite proportions.
Chemical Compounds

Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain are known as isotopes.
Elements and Isotopes
The number of
in an atom of an element is the element's
atomic number

Commonly found in living organisms:
Elements and Isotopes
The subatomic particles in a helium atom.
Placed side by side, 100 million atoms would make a row only about 1 centimeter long.

Atoms contain
subatomic particles
that are even smaller.

The study of chemistry begins with the basic unit of matter, the atom.
What are the subatomic particles of atom??
Chemical Formula?


Table Salt

Hydrochloric Acid

Chemical Compounds
Radioactive Isotopes

Some isotopes are radioactive, meaning that their nuclei are unstable and break down at a constant rate over time
Elements and Isotopes
6 electrons
6 protons
8 neutrons
Isotopes of Carbon
Elements and Isotopes
2-1 The Nature of Matter
Chemical Bonds
Because they have the same number of electrons, all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties.
The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction are known as

The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction are known as
Chemical Reactions
chemical reaction
is a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals.
Chemical Reactions
2–4 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes
PH Scale
Determines acids and bases; ranges from 0-14
Acids - 0 to 7 and bases - 7-14
Lower the pH the more H+
Higher the pH the more OH- ions
What are some examples of chemical reactions and their chemical formula??
Energy -
2 Forms of Energy
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