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The cardiovascular system- Edexcel GCSE PE

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Nicky Swift

on 3 June 2013

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Transcript of The cardiovascular system- Edexcel GCSE PE

The Cardiovascular System is the
transportation system for the body.

It consists of the Heart and the vast network
of blood vessels such as arteries, veins &
capillaries. Short term effects of
exercise on the CV system 1. Increased Heart Rate
2. Blood pressure increases
3. Breathing becomes faster
4. Body Temperature rises
5. Fluid loss
6. Muscle soreness The Cardiovascular
System Objectives

1. To understand what the cardiovascular system is.

2. To understand the short term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system.
The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system works to pump blood through an immense structure of blood vessels.

Blood is delivered to every part of your body, it supplies the body with oxygen, distributes nutrients, gathers and removes waste materials such as carbon dioxide. Let's see who really has been paying attention!

Question 1

Can you name the 3 functions of the cardiovascular system? Possible answers
Sends oxygen
Distributes nutrients,
Gathers and removed waste materials such as CO2 It's all about Heart! Heart Rate (HR) = The number of times the heart beats in one minute. Finding your resting heart rate is a good indicator of your CV fitness. Normal resting HR is considered to be 60-80 beats per minute. 72 is about average. Calculate your resting heart rate Have a look at the chart. For the purpose of this exercise you'll have to use the 18-25 category. How healthy is your resting HR. Question - Why do you think your HR increase when you start to exercise? In his prime, 4 time Tour de France winner
Miguel Indurain reportedly had a Resting Heart Rate of just 29 (a few beats lower and he'd be clinically dead) and lungs that could suck in eight litres of air. His heart was so big his chest was lopsided. As you exercise you work your muscles harder therefore they need more oxygen and glycogen to meet these demands. Your heart has to beat faster to pump the extra oxygen & glycogen rich blood to the working muscles. Understanding Blood Pressure If you listen to a beating heart (as you often do) it makes 2 beating sounds.

One is the heart contracting the lower chambers pushing blood out at high pressure to the arteries.
This is known as Systolic pressure.

The other is the upper chambers contracting pushing blood down into the lower chambers.
This is known as Diastolic pressure. Click to listen to the sounds of the heart High
Blood
Pressure Question - What can you do to help keep your blood pressure at normal level? Have a go, most of them are obvious! Possible answers

Check your weight
Limit alcohol consumption
Don't smoke, it damages the heart and blood vessels
Avoid eating too much salt
Avoid situations that cause stress
Regular exercise Consider your own lifestyle with regard to blood Pressure.

Make two lists, one positive and one negative of things that impact your Blood Pressure. Example - Miss Swift Positive

Trampolining
Swimming
Non Smoker Negative

Occasional drink
Like to put salt on my food Body temperature Immediate effects of exercise on the body Breathing becomes faster and deeper! Why? Be brave can someone explain this? Answer

Breathing gets deeper and faster so more oxygen can be supplied to the lungs. This oxygen is then diffused into the blood and then pumped round the body to the various organs and muscles. Body Temperature Rises During exercise the muscles work and generate heat, which cause the body temperature to rise. The average temp in humans is 37 degrees although 36.4 - 37.2 are accepted as normal. Can you think of ways in which the body
regulates body temperature? Answer

The body regulates temperature by Sweating.

Under normal conditions

The amount of water in = The amount of water out
(food & drink) (urine & sweat out)

If the conditions are hot then sweat increases and urination decreases. The problem with this is we loose salt through sweat and which can lead to muscle cramps. Most of us get all the salt we need through diet so there is no need to add extra. Elite athletes may replace it during intense exercise or competition. The importance of good hydration and sport Muscle soreness Anyone who has ever suffered muscle cramps will tell you it is incredibly painful.

As you know for muscles to work they need to receive oxygen and glucose from the blood. Waste products such as Carbon dioxide are then taken away by the blood. This process is called respiration. As we work harder we need more oxygen and glucose so to achieve this our breathing increases, our heart beats faster but crucially our body diverts blood away from organs such as the digestive system and to the working muscles. This is called Blood shunting. Despite this clever process eventually as we work harder there will be a point where we can't supply our muscles with enough oxygen. At this point we produce energy in a different way called Anaerobic respiration. Glucose is still used but the waste product is now Lactic Acid. The problem with Lactic Acid is that it is a poison that builds up during high intensity exercise. It will start to make the muscle sore and if you continue it can lead the muscle to cramp and stop working.



At this point the athlete has to stop and rest while the blood brings a fresh supply of oxygen. Regular Exercise and the
Cardiovascular system 1. Decreased Resting HR
2. Quicker recovery time
3. Stronger Heart
4. Healthy Blood pressure
5. Healthy veins & arteries Quiz - THE CARDIAC (HEART) RESPONSE

HEART becomes and .


resting heart rate.


Larger stroke volume also means that there is an increase in maximal OUTPUT.


After exercise, the Heart Rate returns back to its normal resting levels faster than it did before training (Improved R_________ T_________) . RECOVERY RESPONSE
This is a combination of the improvements witnessed in the HEART and LUNGS.
The effect of this improvement is to allow more OXYGEN to become available for RECOVERY more rapidly at the end of exercise.
Coupled with the improved transportation of oxygen is the improved transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the working muscles to the lungs.
Therefore improving the process of LACTATE REMOVAL. Answers
THE CARDIAC (HEART) RESPONSE
HEART becomes LARGER and STRONGER.
DECREASE in resting heart rate.
Larger stroke volume also means that there is an increase in maximal CARDIAC OUTPUT.
After exercise, the Heart Rate returns back to its normal resting levels faster than it did before training (IMPROVED RECOVERY TIME). THE EFFECT ON TENDONS / LIGAMENTS / CARTILAGE
The TENDONS, BONES and LIGAMENTS get stronger to cope with the increased load.
CARTILAGE may increase to cope with the increased impact. RESPIRATORY RESPONSE
More ALVEOLI in the lungs can be utilised – greater surface area for gaseous exchange.
Greater CAPILLARISATION of the alveoli – oxygen transfer further enhanced. AFTER AEROBIC TRAINING
CIRCULATORY IMPROVEMENTS
INCREASED BLOOD VOLUME (RBC) – increased levels of haemoglobin. Increased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
Improved REDISTRIBUTION OF BLOOD to active muscles.
INCREASED CAPILLARY NETWORK surrounding the muscles, therefore more blood is transported to the muscles.
ARTERIAL WALLS become MORE ELASTIC – allowed greater flow of blood to the working muscles. The number of red blood cells increase to cope with the demands of carrying extra oxygen. (Altitude training can accelerate this. Ask Mr Moody to explain).

The capillary networks in muscles start to grow more and more branches and are therefore able to transport more blood. (Capilliarisation) Long Term Effects continued Larger stronger Heart Small Heart Regular exercise The Heart is a Cardiac Muscle. When we regularly exercise or train muscles they grow and become stronger. This means:


The amount of blood pumped from the heart in one beat will increase (Stroke volume)
The total amount of blood pumped in one minute will increase (Cardiac output)
Resting heart rate will lower as the heart will pump the blood required in fewer beats.
The more blood that can be pumped the more oxygen it can carry to the muscles that require it. The Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Circulatory system IMPROVED RECOVERY STRONGER TENDONS, LIGAMENTS AND BONES RESPIRATORY RESPONSE BIGGER & STRONGER HEART CIRCULATORY IMPROVEMENTS LONG TERM EFFECTS OF TRAINING 1. Cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood and:
blood vessels
lungs
muscles

2. Oxygenation takes place in the:
lungs
heart
blood vessels Have a go at these to finish. 3. Stroke volume is the volume, per heart beat, of:
carbon dioxide removed
blood pumped
air breathed

4. Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by the heart:
in one beat
during exercise
in one minute 5. The three types of blood vessels are arteries, veins and:
neurones
alveoli
capillaries

6. The main work of the capillaries is:
gaseous exchange
pumping blood
equalizing pressure 7. The main work of red blood cells is to carry:
oxygen
carbon dioxide
water

8. Blood pressure is the force of blood:
against artery walls
in the heart
through the lungs Answers 1-8

Blood vessels
Lungs
Blood pumped
In one minute
Capillaries
Gaseous exchange
Oxygen
Against the artery walls 9. In the alveoli carbon dioxide:

passes out of the blood
passes into blood
passes away from the air

10. Respiration is the release of energy from glucose in the:

lungs
blood
muscles 11. During exercise working muscles need more:

carbon dioxide
water
oxygen

12. Insufficient oxygen supplies are available during:

strenuous exercise
warm up
normal exercise 13. During anaerobic exercise there is a build up of:

oxygen
water
lactic acid

14. Gaseous exchange takes place in the lungs in the:

bronchioles
bronchi
alveoli Answers 9 - 14

passes out of the blood
muscles
oxygen
strenuous exercise
lactic acid
alveoli If you got full marks you deserve a celebration dance Enjoy! The heart is a muscular pump which pushes the blood through these blood vessels To bring about a change in heart rate and blood pressure, the hormone adrenaline is released.
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