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The Quest for Canadian Unity

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Michaela Lathlin

on 15 January 2015

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Transcript of The Quest for Canadian Unity

The Quest for Canadian Unity
Should Canadian unity be promoted?
Quebec Sovereignty and National Unity
How does the nature of Canada affect National identity?
Key Terms
Royal Commission on Bilingualism Biculturalism
The quest for Canadian unity
In 2002 Alberta had the highest rate of economic growth ever recorded by a canadian province.
Climate change also is a contributing factor when talking about Canada, it can create opportunities or challenges.
Example : in North climate change is destroying habitat of some animals that people use for food.

Many people from Newfoundland and Labrador moved to Alberta to find jobs.
The Geography of Canada
Political Representation
Canada's population is spread across unevenly
makes it a challenge to represent all regions fairly in parliament
Representation is used for more effective voting
Official Multiculturalism
Canada adopted multiculturalism as a government policy in 1971
Canada's traditions &
A vision for the future that Canadians of all heritages could unite and promote
Equality and Fairness in a federal system
-Canadian governments use equalized payments to give equal access to all canadians public services like health care & social services.
- As economic conditions change, federal government face difficulty in trying to distribute payments fairly.
-One of the greatest challenges to Canadian national unity has been the rise of Quebec Nationalism has created lots of tension.
Challenges for Francophone Peoples Across Canada
Francophone peoples wanted to have more control by having more people speaking french and be more self determined
1871, New Brunswick outlawed the teaching of french is schools
1930 Saskatchewan barred the teaching of French even outside of school hours
-1963 an extremist separatist group called Front De liberation Du Quebec or FLQ started a terrorist campaign by plating bombs in mail boxes this lead to the Royal commission on bilingualism and multiculturalism.

-Foreign born population is growing four times faster then Canadian born population
-58.3% of recent immigrants came from Asia.
-20% of Canadians do no speak English or French, Chinese languages are third most commonly spoken languages.
-Immigrants are on of the most important issues facing Canadians.
- In 1901, 31% of Canada's population lived in urban areas.
- By 1956 this number had grown to 67% and by 2001, more then 80%.
- Large cities demanded a greater say in decisions that use to made by federal and provincial governments.
Economic Globalization
-World economy has become increasingly globalized. increase trade may provide citizens with economic prosperity. Manufactures saved money because in those countries workers were payed less and received fewer benefits. In addition environmental standards are lower.
Canadian space technology
Stephen Harper prevented the sale of Canadian space technology to an American defense contractor. MDA (McDonald Dettwiler and Associates) has planned to sell its spcae technology division to American owned Alliant Tech system for 1.3 billion.
Canadian Reaction
Some Canadians reacted strongly to the proposed sale of MDA
It is an issue that touches on our sovereignty as a country.
governments action renewed debate over weather and when foreign country's should be allowed to take over Canadian business.
What Is National Unity ?
- Peoples feeling's of unit, wholeness, with other is often closely tied to their sense of identity
- Canadians share feel the sense of unity by showing basic beliefs like respect for diversity.
-Canada is used as a good example of a civic nation. ( In a civic nation diverse groups of people agree to live accordingly to the rules on specific values and beliefs)
Forces Affecting National Unity
- Both external and Internal events can influence citizens concern with national unity.
-During WW1 and WW2, over 100 000 Canadians died. Over the passing years, The remembrance day ceremonies have become a major symbol of national unity. Every year millions of people gather in small and large groups at 11:00 am, on November 11, to honour Canadians who fought in the wars.
Fragile Unity
- Some Canadians believe Canadian unity will break down, and Canada will become smaller countries
- A poll conducted by Innovative Research Group found that 1 in every 3 Canadians think Quebec will have left Canada by 2020.
- Another poll was taken by COMPAS, a public opinion research company, found that almost 1/3 of Albert respondents believed the western provinces should start thinking about forming their own country
Canadian National Unity
- Since Canada is spread out in different regions, with different physical features, the people in colder and mountainous regions will have different points of views on issues than people on the coast of Nova Scotia.
- Canadians speak different languages, live in different regions, have different cultures, and have different beliefs. All of this makes it difficult to promote national unity by expressing a single vision of Canada.
- Individuals, groups and collectives often feel contending loyalties, increasing globalization has made the experience of national unity even more difficult
Western Alienation
Equalizing Payments
- This money comes from taxes that Canadians pay, and the tax revenue is distributed to provinces in need, those governments get to decide how the money will be spent.
Changing Equalization Payments
- In 2006-2007 Ontario was sending about $20 billion a year to the federal government, and has not once received Equalization Payments, even though they could spent less per person on social programs than Newfoundland and Labrador, who was receiving the payments.
Political Representation & Official Multiculturalism
- Population Differences make it a challenge to ensure that all canadians and all regions are represented fairly in parliament
- There was a compromise made in the Confederation Agreement, It affects the was the seats in Parliament are allocated.
- In 1971 Canada was the first country to adopt multiculturalism as an official government policy.
- All governments need to find ways to balance Canada's Traditions, and a vision of the future that Canadians of all heritages could unite behind and promote
Quebec Sovereignty and National Unity
- A huge challenge to the Federal Government is the ability to convince the Quebecois that Canada is their country
- Francophone peoples have always wanted greater self determination and want to have greater control over its own affairs.
-New Brunswick, Ontario, Alberta, and Manitoba have all ruled against the french language at some point
The commissioners warned that Canada was facing a serious crisis,
- most francophone peoples were shut out of positions of economic and decision making power
-Francophone minorities outside Quebec did not have the same educational opportunities as the anglophone minority.
-Many Francophone peoples could not get jobs in the federal government and could not access federal services in french
Reactions to the B and B Commission & Official Bilingualism
- Not many people trusted the B and B Commissions, west believed it was a trick to force them to learn french, Quebecois viewed it as a distraction from social and economic issues.
-The federal government offered funds to encourages provinces to provide more french language education.
-Once New Brunswick was declared officially bilingual the federal department of multiculturalism was created
How has the Changing Face of Canada Affected National Unity
Should Canadian Unity Be promoted?
Federal System And National Unity
Official Bilingualism
Aboriginal Self-Determination and National Unity
Aboriginal Land Claims and National Unity
The Nisga'a Agreement
- Transferred from the control of the british government to that of the canadian government.

Ex. The patriated Canadian constitution of 1982 gave provinces more power and authority than the British North American act allowed.

Equalization payments
- Revenues from federal taxes that are given to countries by the Canadian government to less prosperous countries to make sure public services are equally available to all Canadians

Ex. Newfoundland and Labrador 2006-2007

Inherent rights
- the right to self determination that exists for indigenous peoples who occupied the land and governed themselves for thousands of years before colonizers arrived.

Ex. self determination.

- An area of earths surface that represents a large ecological zone and has characteristic landforms and climate.

Ex. Nunavik is in the Southern Arctic Ecozone (Taiga Shield Ecozone)

Economic Nationalists
- people who believe that a country's businesses and industries should be protected against foreign interests.

-Some people believe that not everyone benefits equally from federal programs, this belief led to the feelings of Alienation
-Some westerners want more say in federal decisions, others argues that western Canada should form their own country
-The federal government and that province of Alberta argued over who should control oil development and revenues.
- Newfoundland and Labrador has been in economic difficulty since its ever become a part of Canada, but in 1979 oil was found in parts of the Grand Banks, oil and gas has been very important to Newfoundland and Labrador's economy, They had to fight with the federal government to keep oil royalties
- American Constitution gave states a great deal of power, even more than the federal government in some parts
- The south wanted to leave and become "Confederate States of America" this sparked a civil war
- Canadian governments did want this happening in Canada, so they agreed that both federal and provincial governments would share some powers but federal governments will have the key decision making power
- Changes were made when the Constitution was
in 1982, the constitution gave provinces new rights powers.
- The official Language acts goals were to affirm French and English as official languages, Preserve and develop official language communities in Canada, Guarantee that federal services are available in both official languages, and to sure that anglophones and francophones have equal opportunities to participate in Parliament and federal institutions
-Increased globalization, ease and speed of travel, new technologies have contributed changes in Canada.
-Some people believe that some of tse changes are dividing Canadians and haveing a negative affect on national unity
Aboriginal Peoples
- in 2006 one million people identified themselves as aborignal peoples
- between 1996 and 2006 aboriginal peoples population grew by 45%,
- The greatest growth were by the metis peoples, their number increased by 91%
-aboriginal governments have been recognized by people that have came and gone over the last 500 years this includes the royal proclamations ,constitutions, and even domestic laws
aboriginal peoples believe that self determination is an inherent right. for aboriginal people to have a form of self- determination the federal government says that federal,provincial, territorial and aboriginal laws must work in harmony
The Jamesbay and Northern Quebec agreement of 1975 started a process of land claims, such as that of the nisga'a of British Columbia, but while they may have some land claims fulfilled, the pace of others goes by really slow.
The Nisga'a agreement was a great achievement for the aboriginal people. In 1998 first nations finally reached an agreement about the two thousand square of traditional territory.
Yes Canadian unity should be promoted, because Canada as itself is a open country, and we allow different groups into the country as immigrants and and as they hold a majority of the population we must promote unity as a country. Canadian unity should be promoted because it give a sense of belonging as a nation, and also regions are now equally represented in parliament.
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