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Team A

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Haniel Burton

on 31 January 2014

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Transcript of Team A

The Mosque
Muhammad’s House
Located in Medina because of Meccans

Substantial in size: Fifty-six metres per side

Intended to serve as the focal point of the new Islamic community
Masjid and Jami
Both known as alternate names for mosque

Masjid: to prostrate oneself which also menas to denote a place of worship

Jami: A large scale Masjid. It's creation developed from a need to fit a larger congregation
Education and Scholarship
By LANE603 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Origins of the Mosque
Islamic tradition champions the decisive impact of a single building on the evolution of the mosque: the house of the Prophet.

The need for some serviceable gathering place for the body of Muslims that were on conquest was acute, and a simple enclosure best fitted that need.

Military motives provided stimulus for the design of the mosque.

What was built within the enclosed space differed from one mosque to the next; the key point was that the outer wall of the mosque clearly demarcated holy ground-haram-from the secular world outside.

When it comes down to it, a mosque is not a building at all, but simply a space set aside for prayer.

Subsidiary Functions
Most mosques are generally known for their primary function as a place of worship, but some mosques are more widely recognized for a dominant secondary role, such as that of a university.
Generalities and Definition
The Mihrab
The Minbar
Arab Mosque
The Maqsura
The raised gabled transept
The Dome Over the Mihrab
Role of Structure and Ornament
Component parts of the Arab mosque could be redistributed and rearranged almost at will without impairing functional effectiveness
Different kinds of structure and decoration were purely cosmetic - stamped earth, brick, stone or marble flags
Maghribi Mosques
For a millennium, only Arab mosques were built there.
Sources found in Syria and Great Mosque of Damascus
Liked non-structural arched forms
Distinguishing features:
pierced, ribbed, fluted domes, esp. over mihrab
manipulation of arch forms to create hierarchal distinctions
readiness to alter size and shape of courtyard
T-shaped design/vaulting
Role of Structure and Ornament
Yemeni Mosques
In Yemen, large hypostyle mosque maintained popularity throughout Medieval period
Commonest form of small hypostyle mosque - rectangular or trapezoidal with a central courtyard
Decoration: exceptionally long bands of stucco inscriptions, frescoes with epigraphic, matchless series of carved and painted wooden ceilings, varied minarets (p92)
Anatolian Hypostyle Mosques
Local builders depended on Arab and Persian traditions
Foreshortened courtyards and tendency to use domical forms for defining space
In highly built-up areas, shortage of space encouraged architects to decorate mosque facades for atention
Saudi kuttab teaching
Mosques were also
used as law courts, public forums, and libraries.
Funerary Mosques
Contributions made over three centuries
Mosque of the Prophet
Mosques were sometimes built over and around the graves of esteemed ancestors of early Islam.
The use of a monumtal dome over the mihrab as a principal accent
Relative scarcity of major mosques in period up to 1300 reflects predominance of great early jami's
Mosques were shifted away from (toward mausolea, etc)
Mosques in Iran
Classifying Mosques
Early period - Arab plan influenced (e.g. Bichapur, Abyana, Istakhr, Siraf, Susa, Yazd)
Some had square minarets
Distinctive character: domed chamber and the iwan, a vaulted open hall with a rectangular arched facade.
Saljuq Mosques
Saljuq period - 473-1080
focus on a monumental domed chamber enclosing mihrab and preceded by lofty iwan
Sasanian religious and palatial architecture

A walled, rectilinear enclosure comprising an open courtyard and a covered area near the qibla.
Ilkhanid Mosques
Mosque of Fustat
Late Medieval Style of Mosques.
Early Arab Mosque
Often confused with the masadra.
Featured a Double-Minaret facade, which was intensified by a single iwan that lead to a domed sanctuary.
Umayyad Mosque in Damascus
Timurid Mosques
One of the oldest and largest in the world.
Largely derived from Persian architecture
Al-Aqsa Mosque
Used Axial Symmetry, most notable structures are Shah-e Zendah in Samarkand, and the mosque of Gowhar Shad Masshad
Safavid Mosques
Continued Timurid trends.
Added a four-iwan courtyard layout, which could accommodate innovations without compromising essential character.
18th Century Funerary Mosque
The third holiest site in Islam.
Mosque: a wall correctly orientated towards the qibla, namely the Black Stone within the Ka’ba in Mecca. No roof, no minimum size, no enclosing walls, no liturgical accessories are required.

The Mosque is the key to Islamic architecture.

Mosque: Principal religious building of Islam, and paramount among its many functions is communal prayer.

Pulpit from which the prayer leaders stands to deliver sermons

Located immediately to the right of the mihrab

Implies the presence of a ruler

Separate, usally square, enclosure within the mosque and close to the mihrab

Screens the occupant from the other worshipers but allows him to see and participate
Did not involve a form that could be used by all mosque, so it never attained too much popularity

Its purpose was to assert an axis at variance with preponderant one in the sanctuary
Located near the Mihrab

Its presence is intended to emphasize some liturgical focus if no to express some religious or political symbolism

Proved to be one of the most durable and versatile aspects of medieval Islamic architecture
Also know as prayer niche

Indicates the direction of prayer

Absolute requirement for any functioning mosque

Often times decorated very elaborately
Characteristics of Mosques
Transformation of the Sanctuary
Each of these elements in the mosque came together to add a secular and princely significance as Islam grew in political power.
Round City of Baghdad
Indifference to exterior façade
Emphasis on Interior
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