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A presentation comparing Futurism with Dada and Surrealism

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samantha griffin

on 24 February 2014

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Transcript of A presentation comparing Futurism with Dada and Surrealism

The evolution of Futurism to Surrealism through Dada
Futurism
The rise of fascism was heavily encouraged by many Italian futurists as they believed it would modernize the social and economic status of Italy in the 1920's, as the country at that time was still between states of industrial revolution in the North, and the rural south.
Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson (1889‑1946)
“Bursting Shell”
1915

Umberto Boccioni
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space1913, cast 1972
Bronze
object: 1175 x 876 x 368 mm
Purchased 1972

Surrealism
Surrealism began in the early 1920s as an avant-garde movement in art and literature.
The word “Surrealist” was coined by Guillaume Apollinaire in the early years of the 20th century
the idea of surrealism could be summed up as “creativity without restriction.” The idea that creativity need not necessarily be bound by established tradition or structure, or even by rational thought. Surrealism mutated from Dada in world war one, in its early stages the movement was most prominent in Paris, but soon spread, effecting theatre, art and literature. Eventually growing beyond the arts themselves, developing into philosophy, and social theory as well as political thought and practice.

The Accommodations of Desire, 1929
Salvador Dalí (Spanish, 1904–1989)
Oil and cut–and–pasted printed paper on cardboard; 8 3/4 x 13 3/4 in. (22.2 x 34.9 cm)
Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection, 1998 (1999.363.16)
© 2011 Salvador Dali, Gala–Salvador Dali Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
Hisory of DaDa
DaDaism was born of out of Zurich, Switzerland in 1916 shortly after the first World War.
The international movement was started by a group of artist and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich.
DaDa Ideology
The foremost vision and ideology of DaDa is the creation of ant-art. anti-art being the concept of forsaking and discarding past examples and conventions of traditional theatre. By pushing aside all reason and logic normally associated with theatre, DaDa practitioners and performers are able to create a unique experience for audience members.
1.We want to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and rashness.
2. The essential elements of our poetry will be courage, audacity and revolt.
7. Beauty exists only in struggle. There is no masterpiece that has not an aggressive character. Poetry must be a violent assault on the forces of the unknown, to force them to bow before man.
10. We want to demolish museums and libraries, fight morality, feminism and all opportunist and utilitarian cowardice.
(Marinetti, F.T, 1909)

Many modern examples of surrealism can be found in film and television, there are many shows that dabble in surreal humour, generally using deliberate illogicality and bizarre juxtapositions for comic effect.
Notable examples of this include Monty Python, the League of Gentlemen, The Mighty Boosh Psychoville and Noel Fielding’s Luxury Comedy

The 1920s also saw the surrealist movement in film, with short films such as “Entr’acte” by Rene Claire, “Le Fantome De Moulan Rouge” by Rene Clair and Walter Schlee and “Un Chien Andalou” by Salvador Dali and Louis Brunel

A social movement that occurred in the early 20th century. Futurism loved speed, movement, noise, machines, violence – concepts of the future and a new world. To embrace the future and loathe the ideas of the past was the general idea. Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti was one of the first to produce a manifesto of the Futurist movement's key ideologies. Intended for performance, it highlighted the fact that Futurism was not a kind movement. Marinetti controversially promotes the oppression of women and the glorification of war. “We will glorify war – the world's only hygiene!” and “militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom – bringers. Beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for women” (Marinetti F.T, 1909). Futurist performer’s relationships with audience were harsh and unfriendly as it strived to shock and disgust them, antagonise and provoke revolt within its viewers. Within the manifesto there are 11 fundamental principles. Here are a few that really define what the movement was all about....
Luigi Russolo
The Revolt 1911
Collection: Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, The Hague
© The Estate of Luigi Russolo

Futurists worked with all mediums of art. As well as theatre, they practised in poetry, music, paintings, sculptures and even architcture. Here are a few examples of Futurism artwork.
A very prominent figure in the surrealist movement was Andre Breton, who wrote and published two surrealist manifestos in 1924 and 1929, the first of which defined surrealism as
“psychic automatism in it’s pure state, by which one proposes- verbally, by means of the written word or in any other manner- to express the actual functioning of thought, dictated by the thought, in the absence of any control exercised by reason”
(Breton: 1924)

key factors of the three
Futurism, Dada and Surrealism are all artistic and social movements which started in the early 20th century. These movements where all related to growth and development of European Modernism
Dada and Surrealism came from two different time periods, Dada began in 1916 in Zurich, Switzerland but later on spread into Berlin and was influenced by artists such as Tristan Tzara and Hans Arp and it lasted till 1926. Surrealism began in 1924 and ended in 1939.
Dada was a movement that came during the time of the first World War. in comparison to Surrealism coming in decade of peace and prosperity. We now have Futurism today which is said to have evolved from Dada and Surrealism.
Dadaism was an anti art movement and the artists were aiming to change the way art had been intepreted by people. it also started as movement because of the feelings of despair and struggle during the time of the war. Tristian Tzara, one of the artists who started Dadaism comes with a quote saying

"The beginnings of Dada were not the beginnings of art, but of disgust" (Tristian Tzara, Dada Manifesto, 1918.)
This underlines the fact that Dada was influenced from the sufferings during the war. On the other hand, Surrealism came after Dada and some say it was born from Dada originally.
Surrealism had more appeal than Dadaism because it wanted to shy away from the past and move on to the future. Surrealism was known to be founded by Andre Breton.
Dada was overtly political. Surrealism, wanted to move towards a more theoretical position.
Futurism has branched out into more artistic fields such painting, interior design, industrial design, drama, textiles, literature, music and architecture.

4 minutes 33
One of the most interesting pieces of dadaism performance is John cage's 4 minutes 33. Whilst sitting at a piano Cage doesn't play a single note, by doing so it is an experiment to allow an audience to hear the natural sounds around them rather than what can be made.
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