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Notes on LOUIS RIEL
Transcript of Notes on LOUIS RIEL
Who was Louis Riel?
How did he contribute to our country as a politician?
How was he involved in the Red River Rebellion?
Notes on Louis Riel
July 10th 2014
The Red River Rebellion
What was the controversy that surrounded him?
What was Louis Riel's fate?
Name: Tanya and Maryam =)
Louis Reil, known as the spokesman of the Métis people, the founder of Manitoba and noted as perhaps the most controversial political leader in history. This presentation will focus on different aspects of Louis Riel's life, and the controversy that surrounds him even today.
Born on October 22, 1844, in the Red River settlement Louis Riel was a Métis, with European and Aboriginal ancestry.
Riel felt the need to step in. He won an election and took up a seat in the Canadian government, which would help him get involved in his people's predicament.
During the long negotiations leading to the transfer of the Red River Settlement, the arrival of many Protestant settlers from the East, and the appointment of William McDougal as the territories first Lieutenant Governer led the Métis to worry about the preservation of their Roman Catholic faith and created tension between in the colony.
Riel Steps Forward
On November 2 1869, Riel's troops seized the fort without any bloodshed and planned to hold it until the Canadian government agreed to negotiate.
November 2, 1869
Riel's Changing Point
Riel's Fate... =(
At 14, Riel left the Red River settlement to study priesthood in Montreal, he grew to become extremely religious. 10 years later he returned to his widowed mother in the Red River settlement.
Riel stayed in St. Paul for several months on his way to his mother's cottage in St. Vital. There, he heard the Métis talk of how the Hudson's Bay Company planned to transfer Rupert's Lands to Canada. This issue was causing much unrest between the Métis.
Riel, in act of defending his race, rallied supporters from the anglophone and francophone communities, urging the creation of an army and a provincial government. His goal was to prevent the Canadians from taking over Fort Garry, the HBC headquarters.
But not everyone seemed to shun the Canadian government, John Shultz and his followers for example, welcomed them. Riel's men arrested all who may have been plotting the recapture of Fort Garry. One, was a man named Thomas Scott, months after his arrest, Scott was executed for taunting his captors. This was done WITH the permission of Louis Riel.
The execution of Scott was a matter of great outrage to the people of Ontario, and is known today as the main event in the Red River Resistance. It even caught the attention of Prime Minister, John A. Macdonald, which led him to gather his troops to retake the Red River Settlement.
Post - rebellion
Though Manitoba was successful in becoming a province, Riel lost the battle that followed, and Fort Garry was re-captured. He fled to the U.S to escape the $ 5,000 bounty on his head, the next year. He still won the Manitoba seat in Parliament in the 1873 election, but in 1875 he was given an amnesty from the Parliament which stated that he was banished from "Her Majesties" lands for 5 years.
December 8, 1875
Somewhere around December 8, 1875, Louis Riel began to have visions of himself being appointed by God as "the prophet of the new world". From that point, he did not think of himself as a failed, exiled politician, but rather a messenger, who was to carry the voice of God down to the people who favored him. The Metis.
Riel: A Changed Man
In the next year, Riel's conditions began to slowly improve. He was less destructive and his behavior mellowed, very soon Riel was released from the institution. He then traveled to the United States in search of employment, determined to make a change in his life.
As Riel was going through these spiritual "visions", along with the belief that he was a prophet, many seemed to question his mental health. Friends of his would often observe new bizarre acts displayed in public, shouting, crying, etc. In the year 1876, Riel was secretly taken to Quebec and placed in a mental institute.
Unable to find a job anywhere else, Riel settled down in Missouri River, Montana where he sold goods to other Indian and Métis.
March 1882, he married Marguerite Monet, who he later had two children with.
He acquired a teaching job, but seeing as it didn't pay much, when he got the call from a delegation of Métis to return to Canada and help their cause, he returned it immediately. But despite his efforts the government ignored Métis concerns.
Riel was the unarguable leader of the 1885 North-West Rebellion, although he never took up arms himself. The attempt failed, and most of the men surrendered or fled.
After the Fall of Batoche, on May 15, he surrendered to the Canadians and was held on trial for treason.
The Fall of Batoche
May 15, 1885
On the other hand to the Metis, Louis Riel was considered as a Prophet, and was sent by God to be their spiritual leader. He was regarded to be a "heroic freedom fighter" who had fought for the rights of of the Metis and been shoved to the side, as an unimportant figure in the eyes of the Canadian government.
The 5th Province...
May 12-July 15, 1870
As Louis Riel was fighting for the land rights of the Métis, he established the proclamation for the Red River Settlements, this was known as The Manitoba Act. The Manitoba Act reached Royal Assets on May 12, 1870, and despite the wishes of John A. MacDonald, it became Canada's fifth province (instead of a Territory) on July 15, 1870.
The making of the Manitoba Act safe-gaurded the English-French speaking rights of the Métis as well as their Roman-Catholic religion. Unfortunately, the Board of Education of Manitoba was not protected and the resources of the province was under the ownership of the Domain Government.
Louis Riel was considered as one of the most infamous rebels in Canadian history, despite all of this he was still persistent. He quoted:
"The Metis are determined to SAVE their rights, or die trying"
In the eyes of the British, Louis Riel was seen as a traitor to the Canadian Government and a mad man who thought of himself as a prophet.
Canadian vs Metis
November 16, 1885
Fifty years later, one of his jurors stated Riel had originally been tried for treason but in the end, hanged for the execution of Thomas Scott.
After his execution, Louis Riel's body was sent to St. Vital, his mother's home. In 1886, his remains were sent to Saint-Boniface Cathedral.
Louis Riel's trial was held in Regina, before a jury of six English and Scottish Protestants who found him guilty. Judge Hugh Richardson sentenced him to death and Riel was hanged on the November 16th 1885
The Canadian Encyclopedia
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