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Persuasion by ESTHER KARIUKI

Persuasive Communication


on 12 October 2018

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Transcript of Persuasion by ESTHER KARIUKI

Do you possess the ability to persuade others? Or is it challenging for you?
Science Of Persuasion

Address how you would use each of the following in your
strategy to persuade others?
Visual Aids
Body Language
Vocal Tone
Julian Treasure: How to speak so that people want to listen

Listen to this podcast and identify at least three ways in which the podcast could be more persuasive, then draft a brief e-mail message that you could send to the podcaster with your suggestions for improvement.

Definition of Persuasion
Persuasion attempts to win "the heart and mind" of the target

Aristotle's 3 Approaches
Emotional appeal - Calls on audiences feelings and sympathies rather than facts, figures and rational arguments
Logical appeal - Calls on reasoning and logic
The ability to persuade is power, for good or for bad. Think of all the people in your life who have persuaded you to reach higher and achieve greatness. Persuasive people keep kids off drugs, prevent wars, and improve lives. Of course, persuasive people also get kids on drugs, stir up wars, and destroy lives.

We want to focus on the power of persuasion for the improvement and betterment of ourselves, our friends and families, and our communities.

Let’s face it, though: Most of us are not born persuaders. For the majority of us, the arts of persuasion and influence are not gifts we inherently possess.

is who you are and how you, as a person, will impact the message. This includes whether you are viewed as trustworthy and credible.

increases your ability to persuade and influence. This power can be seen with people who possess knowledge, have authority, or use coercion during a persuasion process.

is the ability to incite others to act in accordance with the suggestions and ideals you have posed. Motivation is your ‘‘call to action,’’ or what you want your audience to do.
Mortensen, (, 2004)
Persuasion is the process of changing or reforming attitudes, beliefs, opinions, or behaviors toward a predetermined outcome through voluntary compliance.

Note that persuasion is not the same as negotiation, a term that suggests some degree of backing down or meeting in the middle. Rather than compromising, as in negotiation, effective persuasion will actually convince the opposing party to abandon their previous position and embrace yours.
Other Important terms
Aristotle’s most famous contribution to persuasion was his three means of persuasion:
pathos, and
He argued that the most effective persuasive attempts contain all three concepts, setting an unshakable foundation for success.
Mortensen, (2004).
Ethos refers to the personal character of the speaker. Aristotle believed that audiences could be persuaded if they perceived a speaker as credible. In his own estimation:

‘‘We believe good men more fully and readily than others.’’ Aristotle also stated that ‘‘ethos is not a thing or a quality but an interpretation that is the product of the speaker-audience interaction.’’

Ethos includes such things as body type, height, movement, dress, grooming, reputation, vocal quality, word choice, eye contact, sincerity, trust, expertise, charisma ...well,you get the idea.It is the audience’s perception of the credibility of the speaker. Aristotle taught that ethos was the most powerful of the three persuasive means. Indeed, scientific research has proven the power of individual ethos.
Pathos is defined broadly by Aristotle (Rhetoric 1356a, 1377b) as ‘creating a certain disposition in the audience’. The emotive power of the spoken word to secure the goodwill
of the hearer.
Pathos is the psychological state of the audience. The psychological or emotional state of the listener can affect persuasion because ‘‘our judgment when we are pleased and friendly [is] not the same as when we are pained and hostile.’’

When considering pathos, it is important to know both the individual’s actual state of mind and his desired state of mind. When you determine the difference between the two,you can use that knowledge to your advantage. By helping them see how they can get from their current state to their desired state, you can persuade people to do just about anything.
Mortensen, 2004.
Logos is the substance of a message, or the logic presented to provide proof to the listener. Aristotle believed that humans are fundamentally reasonable people who make decisions based on what makes sense. This manner of reasoning is what enables the audience to find the message persuasive and convincing.

Present someone with logical reasons for doing what you want them to do and they are more likely to feel that the decision is theirs rather than yours. Lay out a rational argument and people ‘‘see for themselves’’ why what you propose is ‘‘a good idea.’’

With the other modes of appeal, there is a stronger possibility of a he-tried-to-talk-me-into-it response and a commensurate resistance to persuasion.
(Axelrod, 2006)
What comes to mind when you hear the word persuasion?
– Exerting influence by prescribing and enforcing desired behavior via laws.
– Threatening severe punishment for noncompliance.
– Subtle ploys that induce people to engage in the desired behavior; deceit used in order to achieve one's goal.
Circumvention of awareness
– Avoiding conscious opposition by such measures as hypnosis, subliminal instructions, conditioning, affect transfer.
– Offering inducement for desired behavior; e.g., free bus ticket, sale.
– Promoting strategies and training designed to help people carry out intended behaviors
Perception of persuasion
In groups define the following terms

The Tripartide Model of Attitude
Cognitive-Affective Model - Stanford marshmallow experiment
Mutual Causation Model - Eagly & Chaiken, 1993
Causal Chain Model - Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975
Personality traits
Social pressure

Context Factors
-Use of reward and punishment
Location in a structure

Message Factors
Message content
Message structure
Persuasive style

Source Factors

Target factors
Attending to other
Resisting the
Other’s arguments

Characteristics Of Messages
Message Content - Facts and topics to be covered
Message Structure - How the facts and topics should be arranged and organized
Persuasive Style - Delivery Style
How the message should be presented

Personal reputation for integrity
Use or minimize Status differences.
Appearance and self- presentation
Perceived expertise
Persistence and tenacity

Source Credibility
Source credibility – “doctors”, “overheard” endorsements.
Source likeability – endorsement by well-known personalities.

Review and present in groups on this models of persuasion
Propaganda used in advertising
Bandwagon – Everyone is doing it.
Attractiveness Appeal – If you use this product you will be more attractive to the opposite sex.
Love or Popularity – If you use this product you will become more popular and people will love you.
Power – If you use this product you will have more power over people.
Fame – With this product you will be famous.
Wealth – With this product you will be wealthy.

How is language used in persuasion?

Present in groups with examples
In groups Present an example of the propaganda described above using any of the following channels
TV Commercials
Letters to the Editor
Junk mail
Magazine ads
College brochures

Which source would a reader find more credible on real estate issues? The Daily Nation? or Engineering Today Magazine

Which person would a reader be more likely to believe?
Sam Juma from Kakamega or Dr. Hanna K, Prof. of Criminology at Nairobi University
“plain folks”
“card stacking”
“glittering generalities.”

Other techniques

Switching the burden of proof: Trying to prove a position by asking an opponent to disprove

Begging the question (also called circular reasoning): as used by logicians or philosophers,
the term means more or less assuming the very thing that the argument is intended to

Argumentum ad hominem (“argument against the person”): the attempt to discredit a
view by discrediting the person holding the view.

False dilemma (either-or fallacy): the fallacy of offering two choices when in fact more
options exist.

Appeals to emotion: arguments that try to establish conclusions solely by attempting to
arouse or play on the emotions of a listener or reader.

Red herring: a general term for those arguments that address a point other than the one
that is at issue. Ad hominem, appeals to emotion, and straw man can all be seen as specific
types of red herrings.

Fallacy: a fault in logic or thinking that means that an argument is incorrect.

Bias: information that emphasises just one viewpoint or position.

Propaganda: false or incomplete information that supports a (usually) extreme political or moral view.
Important terms
In Groups find advertisements that fall on the following categories
Ad Populum/ peer pressure
Anecdotal evidence
Appeal to authority/ celebrity
Euphemism/use of jargon to confuse

Copi and Cohen - Logical fallacies
Joshua David Bell (born December 9, 1967) is an American violinist and conductor.
To create attitudes and behaviour- Adoption
To change attitudes behaviour - Discontinuance
To reinforce attitudes and behaviour - Continuance/Deterrence

Do you want them to start doing something?
Do you want them to stop doing something?
Do you want them to continue doing something?

Persuasive communication can be targeted at

1. Cognition. Persuasion can be used to change individuals’ beliefs about an object or an issue, which includes attributes, interpretation, definition, outcome, etc.

2.•Attitude. Persuasion can be used to change individuals’ attitude toward an object or an issue, which refers to the categorization of an object or an issue along an evaluative dimension (from negative to positive).

•3. Behavior. Persuasion can be used to change individuals’ behavior, which is the overt actions regarding an object or an issue.
Persuasion vs. Propaganda
Propaganda has a strong ideological bent
Propaganda is institutional in nature.
Propaganda involves mass persuasion.
Propaganda tends to rely on ethically suspect methods of influence.
In Summary
2 general means to persuasion:
-rational appeal
-emotional appeal.
The success of a rational appeal thus depends on the strength and quality of arguments in the message, factual evidence can be in the form of statistics or personal testimonies.
Recipients are less likely to scrutinize message arguments, but tend to be influenced by non-content features of message, for example, message modality, channel,
source credibility, etc.
Persuasion via emotional appeal: The most widely applied emotional appeal in persuasion is fear appeal. Guilt appeal is also used
Nazi Propaganda
Fear Appeal
What is ethics?

Ethics is about how we ought to live.
How ought we to live?
How ought we to live together? individually’, but also ‘all of us collectively’
Ethics of advertising

Guilt Appeal
Ethics guide us on the the norms that can give direction and pave the way for the rightful attainment of personal good or values as well as the good of the whole society - the common good.
Does an ad have statements that are likely to mislead e.g use of implied claims - Gillette Moisture rich razor
Support your claims with evidence such as a survey or scientific study e.g Anti-aging claims
Using a persons photo or other identity is illegal without their consent
Consent from parents must be obtained for children under the age of 13
Warn audience of graphic content e.g on TV or online

Definition of Propaganda

The organized attempt through communication
to affect belief or action or inculcate attitudes in a large audience in ways that circumvent or suppress an individual’s adequately informed, rational, reflective judgment.

Randal Marlin 2002

The spectrum of persuasion in advertising
Rational persuasion
Factual information
Deceitful advertising
Logical arguments
Physical violence
Fallacious arguments
Emotive persuasion
Read Book I, Chapters 1-3 of Aristotle’s Rhetoric
Watch Nixon’s Checker’s Speech. Why
was the speech successful?
Present in groups the following principles
Persuade the class to:
– Join a club
– Donate to a good cause
– Recycle trash at local dump
– Take part in community service
ƒ Prepare a message for your team to
deliver to the class persuading them to
do something
Obama’s Speech on Stimulus Package – Feb. 7 2009
As you view the speeches
• What is the speaker trying to accomplish?
• What is his attitude toward the audience?
• What is his attitude toward his opponents?
• How does the speaker try to convince the audience?
• Do you think he was/is/will be successful?
What rhetorical devices have been used?
The claims used in manipulation through advertising are

the exaggeration of the quality of product,
fallacious arguments
and emotional appeals
Exaggeration of quality
Puffery is the term used to denote the exaggerations reasonably to be expected of a seller as to the degree of quality of his product, the truth or falsity of which cannot be
precisely determined.

“world best (cup of) coffee” or “king of beers”
Fallacious arguments.
A fallacy is any error in reasoning that occurs with some frequency (Teves, 2009). The fallacies or poor arguments can be made ignorantly and intentionally.
Emotional appeals
In the advertisements can be included appeals
to the need to achieve,
feel safe,
nurture, satisfy curiosity,
the need of affiliation, guidance, prominence, attention, autonomy,
physiological needs such as food, drink, sleep and so on
claims are substantiated in advertisements using
auditory techniques
and various combinations as vehicles for
creating manipulative messages.
Manipulative advertising

Two major categories of claims that can be used to
make the consumers believe something about the product that is not true are “the
weasel claim” and “the unfinished claim” which focus most on the linguistic
The weasel claim involves a modifier, a weasel word that negates the
claim that follows it.

Some of the most common weasel words include
helps virtually, acts, can be, up to, refreshes, comforts, fights, the feel of, the look of,
fortified, enriched and strengthened.
In the expression “helps control dandruff” for shampoos, the word helps acts as the claim no longer control dandruff but it helps control the dandruff like a good friend might.
The expression “leave dishes virtually spotless” can make the consumer to take it as “leave dishes spotless”.
Weasel claim
Photo shopping,
the mixture of the amusement with ads,
the manipulation of the size and the price of the product
the misleading graphs.
Realistic solution against manipulative advertising
Visual techniques of manipulation

Group work
Research and give us an example of the 4 visual techniques of manipulation. Use a photo or video of an ad
Consciousness in consumption
Conscious advertising
More proactive self-regulation of the advertising.
Research in groups and give other solutions against manipulative advertising
A fallacy is a mistake in reasoning.
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