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Germanium

1-32 Element Project
by

Jijo Valo

on 20 October 2015

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Transcript of Germanium

Covalent Bonds
forms
covalent

bonds
Structure
Definition
Background
a
soft
, brittle
metalloid
/
semi
metal
with a lustrous
gray

hue
Roles
in
Life

1-32
Brian Chu # 107
Juan Velo # 122

found in
aloe

vera
plants which boost
oxygen

flow
in body
tissues
found in
Shiitake

Mushrooms
,
germanium
provides nutrition for
human
body
Source: http://industriemetalle.ch/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/11_2010_germanium_border.jpg
named for
Germany
(Latin root
"
germania
"
)
discovered by
German

chemist

Clemens

Winkler
1886
The
Element
:
Germanium

Stats
Roles
in
Life
Cont.

Source: http://www.operationworld.org/files/ow/maps/lgmap/germ-MMAP-md.png
average

molar

mass
72.64 g/mol
belongs in
group

4A as
semi
metal
in
carbon
family
atomic

number
32
has 32
protons
, 32
electrons
, and 41
neutrons,
4
energy
levels
guides flow of
electricity
in
electric

appliances
and circuits
Stats Cont.
Common Isotopes
include:
70 Ge
, represents 21.2% of germanium found on Earth
72 Ge
, represents 27.7% of germanium found on Earth
73 Ge
, represents 7.7% of germanium found on Earth
74 Ge
, represents 35.9% of germanium found on Earth, most abundant isotope
75 Ge
, represents 7.4% of germanium found on Earth
4
valence electrons
and 4
occupied energy levels
Source: http://www.wikiwand.com/de/Clemens_Winkler
may have certain
medicinal
value
Source: http://www.clker.com/clipart-thunder-bolt-plain.html
Source: http://www.sunnyph.com/Content/Uploads/2015/01/pills.jpg
Source: http://drleonardcoldwell.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/shiitake01.jpg
Source: http://www.med-health.net/images/10405054/image001.jpg
Source: http://www.hexapolis.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Self-Healing_Electrical_Circuit_Hybrid_Gel_2-770x437.jpg
Unique Characteristics and Similarities with Other Elements
Source: http://www.seven-health.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/No-Water-7-Health-300x280.gif
Source: http://sciencenotes.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/PeriodicTableMuted.png
Source: https://www.hobart.k12.in.us/ksms/PeriodicTable/chemicalelements%20graphics/gestructure.gif
Nucleus of 32
protons
and 41
neutrons
Has 32
electrons
Bibliography
4
energy

levels
Chemical
symbol Ge
does not react with
oxygen
at 70 degrees F which many
elements
do
boiling
point :
2830
degrees °
C
melting
point :
938
degrees
C
density
at 20 degrees C: 5.323 g/cm
squared

Source : http://theodoregray.com/periodictable/Samples/032.13/s12s.JPG
Source: http://www.wholeheartedplumbing.com/unclog-drain-boiling-water/
Source: http://www.periodictable.com/Samples/032.10/s13.JPG
state
of
matter
at
room
temperature 22-23
degrees
C:
solid
Dangerous?
Life on Earth?
less
useful
materials for
controlling
electricity

flow
in
appliances
vital
nutrition
essential to the
human body
would not exist
harmful
when eaten in
purely
elemental
form
can
irritate

skin
,
eyes
,
respiratory

system
which may result in
death
Source :http://orig07.deviantart.net/0545/f/2011/007/2/a/sad_earth_by_welikegroovyturtles-d36ngr9.png
"Germanium." - Element Information, Properties and Uses. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2015.
"Power System." What's a Semiconductor? N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2015.
Staff, By Live Science. "Facts About Germanium." LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 10 May 2013. Web. 12 Oct. 2015.
shares 4
electrons
forms
nonpolar
molecules with
electronegativity
2.01
polar molecules only have
electronegativity
from 0.5-1.7
"Water Treatment Solutions." Germanium (Ge). N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2015.
most common
covalent
molecules: germanium
tetrahydride
(GeH4),
germanium
difluoride

(GeF2)
, germanium
oxide
(GeO)
"GERMANIUM." Germanium, Chemical Element. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2015.
"Germanium." - Information and Recommended Uses. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Oct. 2015.
"Periodic Table of Elements." Periodic Table of Elements. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2015.
Source: http://hi-led.com/electron_donor.gif
Ionic Bonds
"Molar Mass of Ge - Chemistry Online Education." Molar Mass of Ge - Chemistry Online Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2015.
" Intrinsic Semiconductor." Intrinsic Semiconductor. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2015.
"The Element Germanium." It's Elemental -. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2015.
does not form
ionic bonds
forms
positive
/
negative
ions (+4 and -4
oxidation
#)
"Germanium: Compounds Information." Germanium»compounds Information [WebElements Periodic Table]. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2015.
most common
ionic compounds
:
Ge2+
Ge4+
"Electronegativity." Electronegativity. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2015.
"Nomenclature Naming Ionic Compounds." Metallacycle · Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Oct. 2015.
Source : http://www.tridentsafety.com/media/catalog/product/cache/1/image/9df78eab33525d08d6e5fb8d27136e95/h/a/harmful_1_1.jpg
Source: http://www.german-flag.org/rippled-german-flag-720.jpg
Source : https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Nitrate-ion-elpot.png/200px-Nitrate-ion-elpot.png
The
Best
Joke
Ever
Source: https://sites.google.com/site/christianmackevicius/_/rsrc/1360873060283/change-the-banner/image.jpg?height=400&width=302
did not discover other
elements

motivated by
Dmitri Mendeleev's
1869

predictions on its existence
Source: http://a5.files.biography.com/image/upload/c_fit,cs_srgb,dpr_1.0,h_1200,q_80,w_1200/MTE5NTU2MzE2MzEzMDYwODc1.jpg
bonds with certain
atoms
/
minerals
to form
compounds
and

ores
is
brittle
like many
semi
metals
"Periodic Table of Elements." : Sorted by Electronegativity (Pauling) (EnvironmentalChemistry.com). N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.
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