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Hydrocracking Reactor

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Abdulrahman Alarabi

on 16 December 2014

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Transcript of Hydrocracking Reactor

CHET 305
Kinetics & Reactor Design

Types of Hydrocracking Processes
Rector Design
Reactor Operation
Effect of Operating Variables
Kinetic Aspects
Assumption to be Considered
Reactor Design
What is hydrocracking?
Effect of Operating Variables
- Reactor Temperature
Reactor temperature is the primary means of conversion control. An increase in reactor temperature increases feedstock conversion and shift the yield to lighter products.

- Hydrogen and Ammonia partial Pressure
Conversion increases with increasing hydrogen partial pressure and decreases with increasing ammonia partial pressure.

- Nitrogen Content
An increase in organic nitrogen content of the feed causes a decrease in conversion.

- Hydrogen Sulfide
At high hydrogen sulfide levels, corrosion of the equipment becomes important, and the cracking activity of the catalyst is also affected adversely
Kinetics Aspects
Hydrocracking Reactor
Presented by:
Abdulrahman A. Alarabi (3424033)
Soliman H. Morad (3424050)
Mohammed H. Baghdadi (3424078)
The first plant that might be considered as a commercial hydrocracking unit began operation in Leuna, Germany in 1927 .
Types of Hydrocracking Processes
1-Single stage, once through hydrocracking

2- Single stage hydrocracking with recycle
3- Two stage hydrocracking
Design Prameters:
Quench Zone:
Diameter: up to 4.5 m (15 ft)
Wall Thickness: 28 cm (11 in)
Bed Lengths: 6 m - 12m
Temperatures: 350-420°C
Pressures: 85-200 bar

Reactor Operation
Rate of Reaction
Assumptions to be considered
a) Operation is at steady state.

b) Flow pattern in the trickle flow reactor is plug flow type.

c) Heat losses are negligible and commercial reactors operate under isothermal conditions.

d) Rates of reaction are independent of hydrogen as it is present in excess.

e) Concentration varies only with variation of axial distance.

Important Things to be Done During Startup
1- Cooling pumps should be started before the feed entering the reactor.

2- Feed velocity should be gradually increase to fill the reactor.

3- All valves should be opened.

4- The stand-by equipment must be in good condition.

The quench zones separating successive catalyst beds have the following functions:

a) To cool the partially reacted fluids with hydrogen quench gas;

b) To assure a uniform temperature distribution in the fluids entering the next catalyst bed;

c) To mix efficiently and disperse evenly the fluids over the top of the next catalyst bed.

Operating variables such as temperature,hydrogen partial pressure and ammonia present have a significant impact on yield and quality of the resulting products.
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