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The History of Radiation

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Christie Hans

on 7 April 2011

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Transcript of The History of Radiation

The History of Radiation What is an atom? atoms consist of electrons surrounding a nuclues that contains protons and neutrons Stable vs. Unstable an atom is stable if the forces among the particles that make up the nucleus are balanced an atom is unstable if these forces are unbalanced Wilhelm Rontegen studying cathode rays, realized that flourensence was caused by invisible rays - then discovered X-rays Antoine Henri Becquerel continued Rontengen's work with different materials mainly Potassium Uranyl Sulfate. He exposed it to sunlight and placed on photographic plates wrapped in black paper, the plates showed Uranium crystals. Initially he believed that the suns energy was being taken in by uranium which then produced x-rays but realized that the sun had nothing to do with it. This meant that uranium was giving off radiation with out an outside source (ie the sun). This was the discovery of radioactivity. He then showed that radiation unlike x-rays could be deflected by a magnetic field, and therefore needs charged particles. Won Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903 Pierre and Marie Curie The Curie's began researching radiation in Uranium Ore. Marie coined "radioactivity" as a term. She noticed that elements other than uranium were also active - discovery of polonium and radium. Ernest Rutheford "Father of Nuclear Physics"
Characterized and named alpha particle, beta particle, and proton. Discovered how to calculate the decay of radioactive substances. Works Cited "BBC - GCSE Bitesize: The Structure of an Atom." BBC - Homepage. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa/atomic/atomstrucrev1.shtml>.

"GCSE Nuclear Radiation: Types of Radioactivity." Andy Darvill's Science Site: Home. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. <http://www.darvill.clara.net/nucrad/types.htm>.

"Radioactivity: Historical Figures." Access Excellence @ the National Health Museum. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/historical_background.php>.

"Three Types of Radiation - Alpha, Beta, Gamma." Black Cat Systems - Macintosh Software. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://www.blackcatsystems.com/GM/experiments/ex7.html>.

"What Is Radiation?" Health Physics Society. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://hps.org/publicinformation/ate/faqs/whatisradiation.html>.

"Why Are Some Atoms Radioactive | Radiation Protection | US EPA." US Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://www.epa.gov/rpdweb00/understand/radiation.html>. What is Radiation? Radiation is the releasing of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles.
Types of radiation of nonionizing radiation are Light, radio, and microwaves. Others can produce charged particles (ions) in matter - ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is created by unstable atoms. Unstable atoms are different from stable atoms in that they have an excess amounts of energy or mass (or both).

In order for an atom to be categorized as radioactive it must have an unstable nuclei. In order to gain stability, these atoms give off the excess energy or mass. These emission are called radiation. Three types of radiation
When an unstable nucleus decays, there are three ways that this can happen. It can emit either an alpha particle, a beta particle or a gamma ray. alpha Alpha particles are made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
This means that they have a charge or +2, and a mass of 4- the atomic number decreases by two when it decays.
beta Beta particles have a charge of minus 1.
Beta particles ionise atoms that they pass, but not as strongly as alpha particles do.
When a nucleus emits a beta particle: the atomic mass is unchanged. The atomic number increases by 1. gamma Gama rays are waves, not particles.
This means that they have no mass and no charge.
Gama emission isn't 'radioactive decay' because it doesn't change the state of the nucleus- it carries away some energy. pictures 1,2,3 - http://www.darvill.clara.net/nucrad/types.htm picture 4 - http://larnedfamilychiropractic.org/images/Wilhelm_Roentgen.jpghttp:// picture 5 - www.rtstudents.com/radiology/images/antione-henri-becquerel.jpg picture 6 - http://imaginesciencefilms.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/curie_filmmakerfund.jpg picture 7 - http://cascience6.wikispaces.com/file/view/Ernest-Rutherford.png/89839249/Ernest-Rutherford.png
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