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French Colonisation of the World
Transcript of French Colonisation of the World
Possessions From the 17th century until the 1960’s, France had many colonial possessions around the world. These included parts of America, Canada, Africa, Asia and Oceana. Why Colonise? France wanted to start a colony to set up markets abroad, to have strategic bases elsewhere and to have trading fleets world wide. It not only wanted to do these things but also exploit the natural resources of the colonies and exploit the cheap labor. The First French Colonial Empire There were two main French Colonial Empires. The First French Colonial Empire began in July, 1605 with the foundation of Port Royal in what is now Canada. A few years later, Quebec was founded and became the capital of the massive fur trading colony of New France. From there, the empire expanded in North America mainly due to the growing market and trading. The empire grew to places in the West Indies, South America, the West Coast of Africa and India. In the mid 18th Century, colonial conflicts between Britain and France basically resulted in the demise of most of the first French colonial empire. The conflict or wars were the War of the Austrian Succession (1744-1748), the Seven Years of War (1756-1763), the War of the American Revolution (1778-1783) and the French Revolution (1793-1802) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815). The Second French Colonial Empire Britain had restored most of France’s countries to it by the time the Napoleonic War had finished. But the Second French Colonial Empire really begun in 1830 when the French, led by Napoleon, invaded Algeria. Napoleon also established French control over Asia (including Vietnam, Lao and Cambodia) from 1885-1886. After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, many of France’s later colonial possessions were acquired. In 1883, the French took over some of Vietnam and after that, French Concession was established in Shanghai( 1849- 1946) and they expanded their influence into North Africa and gradually control was gained over a lot of Central, Northern and Western Africa including the modern nations of Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Niger, Chad, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo. The French also had colonies in the south Pacific including New Caledonia. Basically, from the early 1800’s until the collapse of the empire in the mid 1900’s, France had many colonial possessions in their second colonial empire in many areas around the world. During this time, the most profitable colony for France was Indochina, because it supplied many raw materials (such as rice, coal and rubber) and was a marketing area for France industrial products. Between 1919 and 1939, the French colonial empire was at its peak extending over 12,347,000 km2 of land and in the 19th and 20th century, it was second largest in the world only behind the British Empire. The end of the French Colonial
Empire In World War II, the French Colonial Empire started to crumble. This was because foreign powers occupied much of the Empire (Japan in Indochina, Britain in Syria and Lebanon, the US and Britain in Morocco and Algeria, Germany in Tunisia). Although after World War I France’s colonies had been restored, they were involved in struggles for independence from some of their colonial possessions such as Indochina and Algeria. Indochina and Algeria gained independence from France and most of the African colonies had also gained independence by 1960. Although some colonies got independence, some decided to stay under the French rule. This was practically the end of the Second French Colonial Empire From the 17th century to the 20th, France was a major colonization. There were two French Colonial Empires. The first from the 16th century until the mid 18th century. The second was bigger than the first and was from the end of the Napoleonic Wars and lasted until the end of World War II. Quiz!?! Question 1: When did the French colonial Empire Begin? A B C D 16th Century 17th Century 18th Century 19th Century Answer: B, 17th Century Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte was a powerful military leader of France and even became emperor. He was born in 1769 and died in 1821. In 1795, he became commander of the Army of the Interior as well as a trusted advisor to the Directory. He was a talented leader and progressed quickly. He had many triumphs but also a few losses. He was exiled from France after a few of the losses started to damage the country’s budget. His exile didn’t last long and soon he went back to France and led his country back to battle. He led troops into Belgium and defeated the Prussians. But then two days after, he was defeated in a battle against the British. Again he suffered a humiliating loss. He resigned in 1815. Napoleon Bonaparte Question 2: Which of these were never part of the French Colony? A C B D West Coast of Africa South America Ireland Vietnam Answer: c) Ireland Question 3: Around how many square kilometers was the French Empire
when it was at its largest? A B C D 5 000 000 7 000 000 16 000 000 12 000 000 Answer: d) 12 000 000 Question 4:When was Port Royal founded? A B C D Question 5: When was Napoleon born? A B C D 1605 1704 1716 1817 Answer: a) 1605 1770 1769 1791 1802 Answer: b) 1769