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US History - 6.1 - 6.2 - 6.3 - 6.4 - Launching the New Nation
Transcript of US History - 6.1 - 6.2 - 6.3 - 6.4 - Launching the New Nation
Jefferson replaces some Federalists with Democratic-Republicans
Reduces size of armed forces; cuts social expenses of government
Eliminates internal taxes; reduces influence of Bank of the U.S.
Favors free trade over government-controlled trade, tariffs
Southern Dominance of Politics
Jefferson first to take office in new Washington, D.C.
South dominates politics; Northern, Federalist influence decline
B. Jefferson’s Presidency cont.
2. Washington Shapes the Executive Branch
Only three depts., attorney general, and postmaster general
Thomas Jefferson: Sec. of State
Alexander Hamilton: Sec. of Treasury
Henry Knox: Sec. of War
Edmund Randolph: Attorney General
A. New Govt. Takes Shape cont.
Launching the New Nation
Why were George Washington’s terms as president so important for the future of the office? What influences did he have over future presidents and how they worked in office?
How did Alexander Hamilton try to cope with America’s financial problems? How were these solutions controversial to many Americans?
What were the first political parties in America and how did they form? What issues divided the parties and who were their leaders?
What were the key events of John Adams’ presidency? Why did he ultimately lose the Election of 1800? Does your group think the treatment of Adams was justified in the waning years of his presidency?
What was Jefferson’s view of government and its function? What did he do to the size of the government, the national debt, and some of its laws?
What issues eventually led to the War of 1812? Who did the U.S. choose to fight and what was the outcome of the war? What battles and key figures determined the results of the struggle?
Chapter 6 Launching a New Nation Questions
British Burn the White House
By 1814, British raid, burn towns along Atlantic coast
British burn Washington D.C. in retaliation for York, Canada
The Battle of New Orleans
General Andrew Jackson fights Native Americans, gains national fame
Jackson defeats Native Americans at Battle of Horseshoe Bend
- destroys military power of Native Americans in South
In 1815, defeats superior British force at Battle of New Orleans
B. The War cont.
William Henry Harrison makes land deal with Native American chiefs
Shawnee chief Tecumseh tries to form Native American confederacy:
- tells people to return to traditional beliefs, practices
- presses Harrison, negotiates British help; many tribes don’t join
The War Hawks
Harrison is hero of Battle of Tippecanoe but suffers heavy losses
War hawks—want war with Britain because natives use British arms
A. War Hawks cont.
The Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana returned to France; Jefferson fears strong French presence
Jefferson buys Louisiana Territory from Napoleon
- doubts he has constitutional authority
Louisiana Purchase doubles size of U.S.
The Louisiana Purchase cont.
From 1800–1810, Ohio population grows from 45,000 to 231,000
Most settlers use Cumberland Gap to reach Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee
In 1775, Daniel Boone leads clearing of Wilderness Road
C. The United States Expands West
John Marshall and the Supreme Court
Federalist John Marshall is chief justice for more than 30 years
Adams pushes Judiciary Act of 1801, adding 16 federal judges
Appoints Federalist midnight judges on his last day as president
Jefferson argues undelivered appointment papers are invalid
B. Jefferson’s Presidency cont.
March 4, 1801, only two notable buildings in D.C., capitol and Presidential Mansion
Adams did not attend
“We are all Republicans, We are all Federalists
Wanted a smaller govt.
Laissez-faire to economics
Man of contradictions
B. The Jefferson Presidency
Presidential Campaign of 1800
Bitter campaign between Adams and Jefferson; wild charges followed
Jefferson beats Adams, but ties running mate Aaron Burr
House of Representatives casts 35 ballots
without breaking tie
Hamilton intervenes with Federalists to give Jefferson victory
Reveals flaw in electoral process; Twelfth Amendment passed:
- electors cast separate ballots for president, vice-president
III. Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Jefferson, Madison see Alien and Sedition Acts as misuse of power
Organize opposition in Virginia, Kentucky legislatures
Resolutions call acts violation of First Amendment rights
Nullification—states have right to void laws deemed unconstitutional
C. Adams cont.
Adams Tries to Avoid War
French see Jay’s Treaty as violation of alliance; seize U.S. ships
XYZ Affair—French officials demand bribe to see foreign minister
Congress creates navy department; Washington called to lead army
Undeclared naval war rages between France, U.S. for two years
C. Adams cont.
First Party-Based Elections
1796, Federalist John Adams elected president
- Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican, is vice-president
Result of sectionalism, placing regional interests above nation
C. Adams Provokes Criticism
He would not serve a 3rd term
Stay out of Europe’s business
Followed for almost 100 years
Avoid political parties
America ignored this
Retired to Mount Vernon, VA
Fights in the Northwest
Native Americans do not accept Treaty of Paris; demand direct talks
In 1790 Miami tribe chief, Little Turtle, defeats
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Gen. Anthony Wayne defeats Miami Confederacy at Fallen Timbers, 1794
Miami sign Treaty of Greenville, get less than actual value for land
Chief Justice John Jay makes treaty with Britain, angers Americans
British evacuate posts in Northwest, may continue fur trade
B. Natives Resist White Settlers
U.S. Response to Events in Europe
Reactions to the French Revolution
Federalists pro-British; Democratic-Republicans pro-French
Washington declares neutrality, will not support either side
-The U.S. was receiving pressure from France to uphold the 1788 Treaty.
Edmond Genêt, French diplomat, violates diplomatic protocol
II. Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation
Plan for a National Bank
Hamilton proposes Bank of the United States:
-funded by government, private investors
- issue paper money, handle taxes
Disagreement over Congressional authority to establish bank
Debate begins over strict and loose interpretation of Constitution
B. Hamilton and Jefferson Debate cont.
Hamilton and Jefferson in Conflict
Hamilton: strong central government led by wealthy, educated
Jefferson: strong state, local government; people’s participation
Hamilton has Northern support; Jefferson has Southern, Western
B. Hamilton and Jefferson Debate
Judiciary Act of 1789
Judiciary Act of 1789 creates Supreme Court, 3 circuit, 13 district courts
State court decisions may be appealed to federal courts
Washington Shapes the Executive Branch
Washington elected first president of U.S. in 1789
- executive branch is president, vice president
Congress creates State, War, Treasury Departments
Alexander Hamilton becomes secretary of treasury
Washington adds attorney general; these Department heads are Cabinet
I. Washington Heads the New Government
The Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent, peace agreement signed Christmas 1814
Declares armistice or end to fighting; does not resolve all issues
1815, commercial treaty reopens trade between Britain and U.S.
1817, Rush-Bagot agreement limits war ships on Great Lakes
1818, northern boundary of Louisiana Territory set at 49th parallel
Agree to jointly occupy Oregon Territory for 10 years
B. The War cont.
The War in Canada
Madison chooses war, thinks Britain is crippling U.S. trade, economy
U.S. army unprepared; early British victories in Detroit, Montreal
Oliver Hazard Perry defeats British on Lake Erie; U.S. wins battles
Native Americans fight on both sides; Tecumseh killed in battle
The War at Sea
U.S. navy only 16 ships; 3 frigates sail alone, score victories
British blockade U.S. ports along east coast
B. The War Brings Mixed Results
British and French Rivalries
British blockade or seal French ports to prevent ships from entering
Britain, France seize American ships, confiscate cargoes
Grievances Against Britain
Impressment—seizing Americans, drafting them into British navy
Chesapeake incident further angers Americans
Jefferson convinces Congress to declare embargo, or ban on exports
Embargo, meant to hurt Europe, also hurts U.S.
- Congress lifts it, except with Britain, France
IV. The War of 1812
Lewis and Clark
Jefferson appoints Lewis and Clark to lead Corps of Discovery:
- explore new territory, find route to Pacific
- gather information about people, plants animals
Native American woman, Sacajawea, serves as interpreter, guide
C. The U.S. Expands West cont.
The Alien and Sedition Acts
Many Federalists fear French plot to overthrow U.S. government
Federalists suspicious of immigrants because:
- many are active Democratic-Republicans
- some are critical of Adams
Federalists push Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 through Congress
Alien Acts raise residence requirements for citizenship
- permit deportation, jail
Sedition Act: fines, jail terms for hindering, lying about government
Some Democratic-Republican editors,
publishers, politicians jailed
C. Adams cont.
Democratic-Republicans or Republicans
Strong state govts.
Strict interpretation of the Constitution
Small famers and urban workers of Middle America
Hamilton and Adams
Strong Fed. Govt.
Rule of the wealthy class
Loose interpretation of the Constitution
Northeast and wealthy South
The 1st Political Parities
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
Split in Washington’s cabinet leads to first U.S. political parties:
- Jefferson’s allies: Democratic-Republicans
- Hamilton’s allies: Federalists
Two-party system established as two major parties compete for power
Washington saw this as dangerous to national unity and safety.
C. The First Political Parties and Rebellion
Hamilton’s Economic Plan
U.S. owes millions to foreign countries, private citizens
Plan—pay foreign debt, issue new bonds, assume states’ debt
Some Southern states have paid debts, against taxes to pay for North
The District of Columbia
To win Southern support for his debt plan, Hamilton suggests:
- moving nation’s capital from NYC to South
Washington, D.C. planned on grand scale; government seat by 1800
The Whiskey Rebellion
Protective tariff— import tax on goods produced overseas
Excise tax charged on product’s manufacture, sale, or distribution
In 1794, Pennsylvania farmers refuse to pay excise tax on whiskey
- beat up federal marshals, threaten secession
Federal government shows it can enforce laws by sending in militia
Treaty with Spain
Spain negotiates with Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain
Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795, or Treaty of San Lorenzo, signed:
- Spain gives up claims to western U.S.
- Florida-U.S. boundary set at 31st parallel
- Mississippi River open to U.S. traffic
The Death of Washington
Washington dies December 14, 1799
Marbury v. Madison
Marbury v. Madison—William Marbury sues to have papers delivered
- Judiciary Act of 1789 requires Supreme Court order
- Marshall rules requirement unconstitutional
Judicial review—Supreme Court able to declare laws unconstitutional