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Seminal US Documents
Transcript of Seminal US Documents
S Author Place & Time Prior Knowledge Audience Reason The main idea? (Main idea/Theme) Significance Significance: How is the document relevant to subject of study?. Author: Students should look closely at who authored the piece. What do they know about the author that would affect the reliability of the document? Are they aware of any bias the author might possess which would color the account? Place and Time: When and where was the source produced? How might this affect the meaning of the document? If time and place is not given in the source, are there clues within the document as to the time and place of origin? Prior Knowledge: Based on the author and time and place of the source, what additional knowledge can a student trigger from this document?
An example might be a document from John C. Calhoun which doesn’t mention nullification. A student might know that John C. Calhoun authored the South Carolina Exposition and Protest which espoused the compact theory of government and the possibility of nullification. A political cartoon might have drawings of an elephant and donkey. Can the student determine what those symbols represent? Audience: Who was the intended audience? How might this affect the reliability of the document? What do we know about this audience?
Ex: Would we anticipate that Richard Nixon would say the same things to his advisors in the Oval Office concerning the Watergate break-in that he would in a radio address to the American people? Why would Franklin Roosevelt say, "Your boys are not going to be sent to any foreign wars?" Reason: Why was this document produced at the time and place it was?
Prior knowledge, time and place, author, audience all factor in to a student being able to determine reason.
Why would Andrew Jackson says, "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it" in 1832? Why would Joseph Keppler draw the anti-immigration restriction cartoon "Looking Backward" in 1893? Main Idea: What is the point the document is trying to make?
It is essential that students be able to synthesize the information in the source and express it in a single sentence, rather than simply paraphrasing or directly quoting the document. S
E Using Seminal
US Documents Understanding Close Reading Reading closely begins by considering the specific purposes for reading and important information about the text Approaching Texts Who is the author?
What is the title?
What type of text is it?
Who published the text?
When was the text published? What is the content and information about the topic?
What is the structure and language of the text?
What is the author's view? Why am I reading this? Purpose Take Note of.... Questioning Texts Reading closely involves: 1. initially questioning a text to focus my attention on its structure, ideas, language, and perspective 2. Questioning further as I read to sharpen my focus on the specific details of the text Structure How is the text organized?
Why has the author structured the sentences and paragraphs this way?
How do the text's structure and features influence my reading? Topic, information and ideas: What information/ideas are presented at the beginning of the text?
What information/ideas are described in detail?
What ideas stand out to me as I read?
What do I learn about the topic as I read?
How do the ideas relate to what I already know?
What is this text mainly about?
What information or ideas does the text present? Language What words or phrases stand out to me as I read?
What words and phrases are powerful or unique?
What do the author's words cause me to see or feel?
What words do I need to define to better understand the text?
What words or phrases are critical for my understanding of the text?What words or phrases are repeated? Perspective Who is the intended audience of the text?
What is the author saying about the topic or theme?
What is the author's relationship to the topic or themes?
How does the author's language show his/her perspective? Analyzing Details Reading closely involves: 1. thinking deeply about the details I have found through my questioning to determine their meaning, importance, and the ways they help develop ideas across a text. 2. Analyzing and connecting details leads me to pose further text-specific questions that cause me to re-read more deeply. Patterns across the text: What does the repetition of words or phrases in the text suggest?
How do details, information, or ideas change across the text? Meaning of Language: How do specific words or phrases impact the meaning of the text?
What specific word choices have connotative/denotative meaning that can impact meaning? Importance: Which details are most important to the overall meaning of the text?
Which sections are the most challenging and require closer reading? Relationships among details: How are details in the text related in a way that develops themes or ideas?
What does the text leave uncertain or unstated? Why? Relativity How does the text relate to what I already know about this topic?
How does this text relate to what I already understand about this author/historical time period/event/etc.?
Does this text create societal change? How? Why? Text Dependent Questions "What the common core asks us to do is to stop doing all of the work of reading for our students, to stop stealing the fun of reading and put it back in their hands. We want them to explore, uncover the mysteries, inquire, and pick away at the text to figure it out.
- Christina Hank - Analyze paragraphs on a sentence by sentence basis.
- Sentences on a word by word basis.
- Investigate how meaning can be altered by changing key words.
- Decipher why the author chose one word over another
- Recognizes shifts in style Structure Style - Questions the argument and how it was created.
- Requires evidence from the text
- Analyzes key details
- Recognizes shifts in style
- Identify patterns
- Considers what the text leaves unstated/unclear English teachers have natural trepidation over how to incorporate such texts into the English classroom. We hope to help ease this fear through recognizing that documents of all kinds can help expand student knowledge on topics of study. Knowledge of historical documents also helps students understand rhetoric and decipher meaning through close reading. History teachers wonder how they can teach students how to read and analyze the texts beyond the recall of basic information. Again, close reading of a document can help with this analysis and lead to a deeper understanding of historical events and time. History teachers, familiar with the documents, provide context, audience and purpose analysis to English teachers unfamiliar with these letters or speeches Initial collaborative conversations help English teachers to meld documents with the themes of their literature units.
English teachers help History colleagues to guide their students through an analysis of how the text was created and how the rhetorical devices characterize the author and create tone and purpose. Speaker Occasion Audience Purpose Subject Who is the Speaker?
Is someone identified as the speaker? What assumptions can you make about the speaker? (e.g., age, gender, class, emotional state, etc.) What is the Occasion?
What is the rhetorical occasion of the piece? Is it a memory, a description, an observation, a valedictory, an argument, a diatribe, an elegy, a declaration, a critique, etc.? Does the speaker identify an audience? What assumptions can you make about the intended audience? What is the Purpose?
What is the speaker's purpose? In what ways does the author convey this message? What is the message? How does the speaker try to spark a reaction in the audience? How is the piece supposed to make the audience feel? What is its intended effect?
What is the subject of the piece? How do you know this? How does the author present his/her subject? Does (s)he present it immediately or does (s)he delay its revelation? Stylistic and Linguistic Elements Tone Organization Narrative Style Evidence Evidence: How does the author back up what they say? How do they employ rhetorical devices (ethos, pathos, logos) to convey meaning? Is their evidence credible? Are there sources? How do they utilize elements of literature and
What syntax, language, detail exists?
What word choices are important? What is the author's attitude toward the subject? What emotional sense do you take from the piece? How does the diction point to tone? Organization: How is the work organized? How does the author arrange his/her content? Is it written in a specific form (argument, rhetorical questioning, etc.)? What kind of repetition, if any, does the piece feature?
How does the physical structure of the piece relate to its mental arrangement?
Does the author utilize lists, analogies, story-telling, compare/contrast, cause/effect, heirarchy, allusion, variation, etc.? Narrative Style**: How does the author tell the "story"? What does the author reveal? What does he/she conceal? What does (s)he invert/subvert? Useful Tools for Conquering
Seminal US Documents GrayC1327@gmail.com email@example.com Katy Berner Corey Gray Writing
Evidence Evidence Based Claims (EBC) Forming a Claim Finding Details Stats
Events Facts and Ideas Words and Organization Repeated words
Organization Structure/Phrases Opinions and Point of View Interpretations
Explanation of ideas or events
Beliefs Evidence Based Claims (EBC) Forming a Claim Connecting the Details Author's use of hard facts to illustrate or define an idea
Author's use of examples to express a belief or point of view
Author's use of vivid description to compare or oppose different ideas
Author's description of different actors or characters to illustrate a comparison or contrast
Author's use of sequence of events to arrive at a conclusion Facts and Ideas Words and Organization Author's use of repetition of specific words or structures to emphasize meaning or tone
Author's use of language or tone to establish a mood
Author's use of figures of speech/language to enfer emotion or embellish meaning
Author uses a specific organization to enhance a point or add meaning. Opinions and Point of View Author compares/contrasts evidence to help define his/her point of view
Author offers his/her explanation of ideas or events to support his/her beliefs
Author tells his/her own story to develop a point of view
Author uses language to reveal an opinion or feeling about a topic Make A Claim Writing Evidence Based Claims Establish the Context Where is the claim coming from?
Why is it relevant?
What is the purpose of writing? Clearly State the Claim Precisely express your topic
Comprehensively express analysis
**It is sometimes helpful to describe part of the claim before providing the supporting evidence Organizing Evidence Break down topic into sets of connected ideas
Use transitional phrases
Have quotes and paraphrases
Reference your evidence Goals Day 1 Day 2 Introduce Close Reading
Model/Practice Close Reading of Documents
Evidence Based Claims Review from last class
Time to work/plan & collaborate
Share What the "experts" say about collaboration