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Models to Explain Learning

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G Harrison

on 22 April 2018

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Transcript of Models to Explain Learning

UCS + CS CR
Stimulus similar to CS CR
Conditioning an Emotional Response
"Little Albert" exp.
Stimulus Generalisation
"They all look the same to me"
Equation as a 3 phase process
Before
Natural responses are evident
During
Acquisition phase due to repeated pairing
After
Learner consistently produces conditioned response
Classical Conditioning
1899
Ivan Pavlov
Conduct research into the digestive system of dogs - particularity the role of salivation
Principles that Influence C.C
Models to Explain Learning
Learning
Relatively permanent
change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience.
Intentional and Unintentional
Psychological construct = Explain something that we believe to exist but can not directly measure.
Models to Explain Learning
Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Little Albert
Observational Learning
Conditioning
Process of association
Learning process - the HOW
Stimulus in enviro
Behavioural response
Working all weekend
Getting paid
Overview
Classical Conditioning
Learning refers to associations formed between events or actions
Equation (A+B=C)
Learning refers to the process of increasing the likelihood of a behavior occurring or not occurring based on its consequences
3 way process (A>B>C)
Operant Conditioning
Observational Learning
Learning refers to discovering things by watching other people
Cognitive process in social context
Used an apparatus to measure the amount of saliva produced when a dog ate
Restrained in order to reduce potential confounding variables
Method of collection altered throughout experiment
Pavlov observed that the apparatus was recording salivation not just at that taste or sight of dog food but also at the sight and sound of the assistant preparing the food.
Lead to unintentional observations
Stimulus
Response
Food
Salivation
Sight/Sound of assistant
Repeated association of two (or more) different stimuli.
Involuntary linking of automatic response that would not normally be produced
Phase 1: Before
Neutral Stimulus
: Produces no response
Unconditioned Stimulus
(evokes a non-learned response) automatically produces the
Unconditioned Response
(the non-learned response)
NS = No response
UCS = UCR
Phase 2: Acquisition
Period during which several trials are carried out and
learning takes place.
NS must be presented
BEFORE
the UCS in order to become the CS - these trials become the "Acquisition Process"
NS + UCS = UCR
Phase 3: After
We know that learning takes place if the organism can now produce a response to what was once the NS.
CS = CR
Once the NS
Once the UCR
Role of the learner
Passive

Timing of the stimulus
Immediate

Nature of the response
Reflective/Involuntary/Automatic
Key Points to Note
When stimulus similar to CS might trigger the CR
Stimulus Discrimination
"I know they are different"
Occurs when a person or animal responds to the CS only, not to any other stimulus that is similar to the CS.
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
"Gone but not forgotten"
Stimulus Similar to CS = CR
Horn = Salivation
Response can be weakened by removing reinforcement
The food no longer reinforces the bell
Several extinction sessions may be necessary to reverse conditioning
HOWEVER
If the bell is rung following a period of extinction the dog may suddenly produce the CR
This is weaker and short-lived compared to original CR
CS = CR
An emotional reaction in response to a specific stimulus acquired through classical conditioning.
John B. Watson
1920
With the help of Rosalie Rayner, Watson
intentionally
conditioned an emotional response -
fear
- to test if these responses were innate or conditioned.

Hypothesis:
A child would react with fear when they heard a loud noise, and that this fear was an unconditioned response.
The Experiment
Participant:
11 month old placid baby boy
Mother worked at the clinic where exp. took place
Mother
unaware
that her son would be used for emotional exp.
Paid $1 for 17 days
Pre-Testing
Determining if he can produce the UCR (fear response)
Watson presented scary masks and loud noises and found he was capable of producing the fear response.
Phase 1: Before
Albert placed on floor and a white laboratory rat was placed nearby.
He played with the rat and showed no fear.
NS = No Response
UCS = UCR
Phase 2: Acquisition/During
Whenever Albert reached for the rat Watson would strike a steel bar with a hammer behind Albert.
Initial reactions observed:
Violently startled
Irregular breathing
Raised his arms
Second pairing reactions:
Same reactions
+ Lips began to pucker and tremble
Third pairing reactions:
Same reactions
+ began crying
NS + UCS = UCR
Phase 3: After
Albert would burst into tears and tremble at the mere sight of the rat.
CS = CR
Principles evident
Stimulus Generalisation
Reacted with fear when presented with a white rabbit, dog, Santa Clause mask and some toys!
Similar CS = CR
At this stage Albert's mother discovered the true meaning of the experiment, quit her job and left the area.
This fear was never extinguished.
Ethical Implications
Breach almost every modern day ethical consideration.
Psychological Harm
Emotionally traumatised from conditioned fear response
Informed Consent
Failed to inform mother of possible risks to her son
Debriefing
Albert's mother did not discuss the exp. at conclusion
Extinction of conditioned response did not take place
Confidentiality
Watson publish results outlining the identity of participants
To complete
CC Activity book
Learning Guide questions
Review Video
The likelihood of a behaviour being repeated is determined by the consequences of that behaviour.
Three Phase Model
Skinner
1930's
Skinner believed that virtually all behaviours could be analysed and explained by the relationship between the behaviour, its antecedents and its consequences.
A - The Antecedent
The stimulus that comes
before
the response.
Frames how the organism behaves.
Points of Difference
Role of the learner
Active

Timing of stimulus
A->B->C

Nature of the response
Voluntary
B - The Behaviour
Response to the stimulus
because of
the antecedent.
C - The Consequence
Follows
the behaviour and may result in either pleasant or unpleasant circumstances.
Influence the
likelihood
of the behaviour being repeated or not in the future when the organism is exposed to the A.
Reinforcement
Consequence that
increases
the
likelihood
of a behaviour occurring in the future because it has made the behaviour stronger.
Positive Rein.
Pleasant event that
follows
a response
Increases
the likelihood of response occurring again
Negative Rein.
Unpleasant stimulus is removed/reduced
Increases
the likelihood of response occurring again
Punishment
Response being followed by the introduction of an unpleasant stimulus.
Positive Punish.
Presentation of an
unwanted
stimulus
Decreasing
the likelihood of a response occurring
Negative Punish.
Removal of a
wanted
stimulus
Decreasing
the likelihood of a response occurring
Response Cost
Often of monetary value $
Type of
negative punishment
Removal of pleasant stimulus as a consequence of undesirable behaviour
Example:
Driving too fast = speeding fine = cost you money
Reduce the likelihood behaviour occurring in the future
Principles that influence
Stimulus Discrimination
Tendency to respond in the same way to stimuli similar to antecedent stimulus.
Normally at a reduce level.
Stimulus Generalisation
Ability to respond only to certain stimuli and not others.
Differentiate between stimuli that signal reinforcement and non-reinforcement.
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
Learned response gradually decreases in strength after reinforcement stops.
The reappearance of a previously reinforced response after a period of apparent extinction.
Reinforcement or Punishment
Skinner's Box
Apparatus designed for the study of operant conditioning in animals.
Observational
Learning
Occurs when we observe the actions of a model and note the consequences, then we decide whether to imitate them or not.
Allows people to skip trial-and-error stage of learning.
Elements of O.L
For learning to occur several elements must be involved.
Attention
Social Learning Theory
Emphasises the importance of the environment in which learning occurs.

Bandura
Must pay attention/be alert
Model must be perceived as interesting
Retention
Learning must be able to remember/retain what was done so they can use it later
Mental Rep (Images and Sound)
Reproduction
Must be able to imitate the behaviour
Psychologically and physically
Motivation
Must have the desire to repeat the behaviour
Reinforcement
Must perceive some form of reward for repeating
Determines if repeated thereafter
Additional Factors that Influence
Attention
If the observer likes or can identify with the model = learning is more effective
Retention
Retained if the observer can encode the info in an easily-remembered form
Reproduction
Some tasks may require the use of a skill the observer may not have
Physically/Cognitive
Motivation/Reinforcement
External Rein | Vicarious Rein | Self-Rein
If the modelled behaviour is reinforced, this will motivate the person to repeat and expect the behaviour to be reinforced.
Examples
NS – Sight of the Lead
UCS – Going for a walk
UCR – Excitement in response to a walk

CS – Sight of the Lead
CR – Excitement in response to the sight of the lead

The dog has learned to associate the sight of the dog lead with being taken for a walk.
Examples
NS – Song playing
UCS – Good times with friends
UCR – Positive mood due to good times with friends

CS – Song
CR – Positive mood in response to the song

We learn to associate the song with the good times we had.
VCAA 2008 MCQ Exam QUESTIONS
When Elijah was a child he spent many happy weekends with his grandmother and they had lots of fun baking scones together. Now whenever Elijah smells freshly baking scones he feel happy.
Q29. The smell of scones is
A) an unconditioned stimulus
B) an unconditioned response
C) conditioned stimulus
D) conditioned response
Q30. The feelings of happiness when Elijah smells the scones is
A) an unconditioned stimulus
B) an unconditioned response
C) conditioned stimulus
D) conditioned response
A influences B
In the form of either
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