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Miming

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shajeda kalitzki-abedin

on 16 November 2012

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Transcript of Miming

Made by Shajeda Kalitzki-Abedin miming Contents: - What is miming? Miming is the theatrical technique of portraying characters and acting out scenes, or narratives, and expressing an idea or mood without the use of speech. Mime is presented entirely through the use of hand gestures and bodily movements. The word ‘mime’ comes from the Greek word ‘pantomimus’, which means ‘imitating all’. This is quite relevant as miming involves imitation of various things. What is miming? -The history of the art of Mime The history of the Art of Mime Mime is one of the oldest forms of self-expression. Before the human voice was even developed, gestures were used as a means of communication and were also an aid in the development of the vocal sounds. Later, they were incorporated into the first forms of written language. For example, the hieroglyphics of the Egyptians and the illustrative writings of the Hebrews. Gestures and bodily movements were also apparent in ancient dances and ceremonies. As the spoken language was developed, instead of fading into obscurity, mime had become a form of entertainment. During the fourth and fifth centuries BC, in Ancient Greece, mime developed into a true theatrical form. It all begun in the Theatre of Dionysus in Athens. Masked actors enacted every day scenes, with the help of elaborate gestures, outdoors in front of audiences of 10, 000 or more at festivals in honour of Dionysus, the god of theatre. With the addition of text, protagonists, and stage sets, miming and dance remained essential to both tragedy and comedy plays. Ancient Hebrew Writing Ancient Hebrew writing Theatre of Dionysus in Athens, Greece After the Romans had conquered Greece, they adopted the Greek art of mime. Being lovers of spectacle, the Romans begun renovating and rebuilding Greek theatres for their own plays and interpretations of Greek mime. Among the Romans, mime disconnected from dance and speech, and pantomimes were introduced. Roman pantomimes involved short, improvised, burlesque scenes. They depicted current events and themes of love, adultery and mocking of the gods. Over time, the plays became more literary and ranged from themes of tragedy to comedy. Roman pantomime After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Christian church showed much opposition to the art of mime labeling it as indecent. Most theatres were closed down and mime artists were excommunicated by the church.
Despite all this, the basics of miming
survived. As the churches attitude to
miming relaxed, mystery and mortality plays
were performed with religious themes, and often
in mime. The christian church Mime continued to be a popular form of entertainment into the Middle Ages and reached its height in the 16th century, Italy, in the form of ‘Commedia dell’Arte’. They had few props, were improvised and were free to watch (the troupes were funded by donations). The stories performed were about common problems/situations: jealousy, love and old age. It was found that the stories were based from the Roman comedies Plautus and Terence. Characters were recognised through the use of costumes, masks and (sometimes) props. Known as street performers, Commedia dell’Arte actors teamed up with other groups and formed troupes and travelled around Europe, performing. Commedia dell'Arte During the 18th and 19th centuries, mythological ballet-pantomimes became popular in the courts and theatres of Europe. By the end of the 19th century, English Christmas plays became popular. These plays were generally based on nursery tales and featured stock characters in costume that sang,
danced, spoke dialogue and did acrobatics.
These plays were called ‘Pantomimes’.
These Christmas pantomimes had no
miming in it, but were still associated
with mime as they included some elements, although remote, of miming techniques and art. Pantomime was also incorporated into circus acts in 19th century America and England. At the turn of the century (1900), classical pantomimes had been stereotyped and were not performed as much as it had in the past. The art of mime had also been put on a temporary halt. Miming was reborn in 1923, after the acting school in France, Théâtre du Vieux Colombier,
was founded by Jacques
Copeau. The school encouraged
miming as it was thought the
human body alone was sufficient to fill a stage and entertain a crowd. Jacques Copeau By the mid-twentieth century, Paris was the place for mimes to be as the leading miming masters lived there and the main acting schools were established there. Three main schools were established in Europe. The most common style of miming is the white-faced, illusion pantomime, which portrays concrete emotions and situations by using conventional gestures, creating the illusion of something there when, in reality, it is not. Corporeal mimes rejected this form of mime, but instead used organized movements of the whole body. Lecoq movement theatre combined acting, dance and clowning with movement. Traditional, white-faced mime By the 1980’s, these styles of mime began to expand into many new directions. Rather than
limiting themselves to silent
expressions and classical
pantomimes or organized
mime techniques, they
experimented freely with text and the use of voice. They also used props, costumes, masks, lighting effects and music. Miming in the modern era is no longer referred to exclusively as mime, as it has incorporated
so many new elements. It
has also been called mime-dance,
mime-clowning, mime-puppetry etc.
Sometimes it can also be called physical or movement theatre. Someone who uses mime is called a 'mime artist'. In earlier times, such a performer would be called a 'mummer'. Mime artists There are many famous mimes that have been, and who are currently living: - Mime Artists
* Marcel Marceau
*Charlie Chaplin
* Mamako Yanoyama - Marcel Marceau Marcel Marceau (born Marcel Mangel) was born in Strasbourg, France, on the 22nd March, 1923. He was born of a Jewish family, his parents being kosher butchers. Marcel’s father was killed at the notorious Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II. Marcel and his older brother, Alain, adopted the last name "Marceau" during the German occupation of France. He and his brother joined the French Resistance and saved many lives. After the liberation of France, Marcel joined the French Army working as a liaison officer. Marcel started miming as a way of keeping children quiet as they were escaping to Switzerland. Marcel was demobilized in 1946. He then enrolled as a student in Charles Dullin’s School of Dramatic Arts in Paris.

Marcel joined the Jean-Louis Barrault's company and, through his performances, won high praise and claimed his fame. His career as a mime was firmly established. In 1947 he created the character, 'Bip the Clown'. His first performance as this character was performed at the Pocket Theatre, in Paris. Bip became Marcel's key character and reached the peak of his fame through Bip the Clown. One critic once said: "He accomplishes in less than two minutes what most novelists cannot do in volumes."

Marcel performed all over the world in order to spread the 'art of silence' and in 1949 was awarded the Deburau Prize. Following this award, Marceau founded Compagnie de Mime Marcel Marceau, the only company of pantomime in the world at the time. He wrote many mimodramas, including 'The Pawn Shop', 'The Three Wigs' and 'The Wolf of Tsu Ku Mi'.

In 1999, New York City proclaimed that the 18th of March was to be called 'Marcel Marceau Day'. Marcel died at the age of 84, on the 22 September, 2007. What can I find out about the art of mime and how can I display the skills that I have learned through my research? Marcel Marceau Bip the Clown -Charlie Chaplin Charlie Chaplin was born in London, England, on the 16th of April, 1889. His father, Charlie Chaplin, Sr, was a butcher and popular singer. His mother, Hannah Chaplin was an unsuccessful singer and actor. Charlie Chaplin had an older half brother who was his mothers illegitimate son. In 1892, Hannah Chaplin had another son to music hall entertainer, Leo Drydan, who took custody of the child. Charlie Chaplin's father never showed much interest in his sons, so Charlie lived with his mother and brother in poverty. The counsel found work for Charlie and his brother in a workhouse and they were housed at the Central London District School for Paupers. In September 1898, Hannah was admitted into a mental institution and Charlie and his brother moved in with their father. Neither boys knew their father, and by this point Charlie Chaplin Sr. was a severe alcoholic. Life with the man was so bad that the family was visited by the 'National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children'. Charlie's father died two years later at the age of 37. Hannah had by this point been in an out of the mental institution and was taken care of by Charlie, but died in the institution in 1928.

Having inherited natural talents from his parents, Charlie at a young age was on the stage. The stage was the best opportunity for a career. Through his fathers connections, Charlie made his professional debut as a member of a juvenile group called "The Eight Lancashire Lads" and very quickly became known for his exceptional skills as a dancer. With this group, he toured around British performance halls from 1899-1902. Over the next few years, Charlie was accepted into a variety of well known stage companies including Fred Karno's prestigious comedy company. Charlie not only became well-known in his industry, but also earned considerable press attention.

On the 25th September, 1914, Charlie signed up with an American film company, Keystone studios, after a member of the NYMPC (the New York Motion Picture Company) saw Charlie in a performance in America during his tour with the Karno company. During his time with this film company, he created his most well-known character 'the Tramp'.

Over his life, he swapped film company's a few times, and featured in many films. Charlie Chaplin became a household name as he became very famous and his movies very popular. There were shops full of Charlie Chaplin merchandise and songs made about him. Charlie Chaplin married 4 times in his life, 3 (Mildred Harris, Lita Grey and Paulette Goddard) ended in divorce.

Charlie Chaplin's last wife, Oona Chaplin, was left a widow after Charlie Chaplin died on the 25th of December, 1977, at his home in Switzerland. He died in his sleep from the complications of a stroke. The funeral, held two days later on the 27th of December, was a small and private Anglican ceremony, in accordance to his wishes. He was interred in the Vevey cemetery. - Common mime types Charlie Chaplin as 'The Tramp' Charlie Chaplin shows
off his merchandise - Mamako Yoneyama Mamako Yoneyama was born in 1935, in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. Mamako, from a young age, attended a dance school and, by the time she was a teenager, was the acclaimed best dancer in the school. Mamako's father was a school teacher and ballet dancer by choice. He performed with a local ballet company.

After her school years, Mamako attended Tokyo University where she studied physical education. She studied modern dance under the Egichi-Miya, the famous Japanese choreographers/dancers.

After attending a performance made by Marcel Marceau in Tokyo, Mamako decided she was going to follow his example, and become a mime. Studying and dancing, Mamako became famous in Tokyo. Audiences flocked to see her performances. Due to pantomime being such a new concept in Japan, people called her art 'twisted dance'. Offended, Mamako moved to Hollywood, where she also became well-known, performing at mime festivals all around the USA. During this time, Mamako created her own mime genre, which she called Zen Mime. She also featured in a few movies, including the 'Legend of Eight Samurai'.

However, feeling lonely, Mamako decided to return to Japan. She remained there for a while, but then decided to move to Paris. Today, she teaches mime and writes about the meaning of expression in pantomime. Mamako Yoneyama Mamako in 'The Legend of Eight Samurai' White Face Mimes- Today, the most popular form of mime is the whitefaced mime artist. They are known to have white faces and black outlined lips and eyes as to accentuate their facial expressions. It utilizes illusion pantomime, which portrays both emotions and actions through elaborate gestures in order to create the illusion that the actor is interacting with an invisible object. Common Mime types Corporeal Mimes- This form of mime aims to convey abstract ideas and emotions that would be relevant to everybody and anybody. By using whole body movements, corporeal mimes seek to convey messages. Human Statues- Human statues are usually painted one colour completely from head to toe and tend to wear ornate clothing as to draw attention to themselves. While human statues do not actually fall into the traditional category of miming, they are considered a modern form of miming. Non-traditional styles- Since the 1980s, miming has expanded into many new directions. Newer styles may sometimes ignore the traditional miming techniques such as the silent expressions. Modern miming often may include text/dialogue, props, costume, masks, lighting effects and music. Many new genres have been introduced such as mime dance and mime clowning. -Places to find mime Places to find mime In the twentieth century, a new creation was invented that proved to be very popular, was wide spread and is still used today: the motion picture. Early films were restricted in that there was no sound and little dialogue could be used. For this reason, mime became very important to films. Silent film comedians, such as Charlie Chaplin, Harold Lloyd and Buster Keaton, had all learned mime in theatre school. Their skills in their films were exceptional and their contribution made to the art of mime was, and still is, evident in on-stage mime. Since the 'talkies' have been invented (films with sound and dialogue), mime has not been as much of a necessity to films anymore, and its use in film has been fazed out. However, the famous comedian, Rowan Atkinson, has become famous for his use of mime in movies and television shows. Particularly as his character 'Mr Bean'.

Mime can also be found on stage. Mimes will often give shows, generally comedies, displaying their skills. Particularly before the invention of the motion picture, the stage was the only way for mime to be presented. Pantomimes, particularly Christmas pantomimes in Britain, were very popular forms of mime. Mime is also popular in street performing and busking. The most common form of mime on the street is human statues. - Bibliography Bibliography Websites:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlie_Chaplin

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcel_Marceau

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mime_artist

http://members.tripod.com/~kiko_mime/history.html

https://sites.google.com/a/chmsdrama.com/www/pantomimenotes

http://www.charliechaplin.com/en/biography/articles/21-Overview-of-His-Life

http://www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/yoneyama.html

http://www.ehow.com/about_5045648_origin-mimes.html

http://www.imdb.com/name/nm3150734/filmotype

http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0545131/

http://www.mime.info/history-lust.html

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/miming

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/pantomime

Books:

Callery, Dympha (2001). Through the Body: A Practical Guide to Physical Theatre. London: Nick Hern Books.

Broadbent, R. J. (1901) A History of Pantomime, Chapter VI. London.

Lust, Annette. "The Origins and Development of the Art of Mime". From the Greek Mimes to Marcel Marceau and Beyond: Mimes, Actors, Pierrots and Clowns: A Chronicle of the Many Visages of Mime in the Theatre. 9 March 2000.
Thank-you!
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