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Interprofessional Practice

CEN - Looking at Secondary and ECE sector with Justine Gibson

Jo Fraser

on 1 August 2013

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Transcript of Interprofessional Practice

Interprofessional Practice
Let's! look at
from and with


Working with Children
Kindergarten Teacher
Working with
Supporting family, communicating and sharing information, providing positive feedback too often parent can encounter negative information.

Helping families make links and liaise with outside agencies.

Providing a safe environment for families where they have a sense of belong and well being.

Working in partnership for the best interest of child

Allowing and having good communication channels so information can be shared freely, dialogue is ongoing and needs to be maintained.

Working with
Do not have direct day to day contact; instead takes on the role as administrator

Puts together appropriate timetables
negotiating the ‘life skills based’ option classes and providing colour coded personalised timetables for each student.

‘Advocacy Role’ e.g. ensuring all the special needs students have equitable access to relevant areas of the curriculum

Working with

Daily contact with whanau via email, phone or often in person.

Advises regarding changes to the school day or transport (taxi) arrangements.

The person who has the ‘difficult’ conversations with parents.

Assignment Two
Learning with, from and about each other
Observations and Interviews were conducted
the following settings

Kindergarten setting
40 children
Age Range 3-4 years

Secondary setting - ORS funded class
5 students
Aged Range 14-21 years

Kindergarten teacher
Bachelor of Midwifery
PG in Teaching Early Childhood
Teaching for 2 years

Kindergarten teacher
Diploma in ECE
Bachelor of Arts

ESW - Education Support Worker
4 Years Experience
Works 15 hours with child

SENCO/HOD Learner Support
Master of Education (Spec Ed)
PG in Special Education
Teaching Background – Maths/Biology/Physics/Chemistry
Trained in South Africa taught there for 11 years

ORS Funded Teacher
PG in Special Education
Teaching Background – Primary trained,
now teaching now working in Secondary.

What is Interprofessional Practice? (IPP)
It "is when two or more professionals work together as a mutually respectful team towards common goal" (Carrington & MacArthur, 2012)
Information gathered from
Complied by
Justine Gibson
Jo Fraser
Early Childhood Sector
Secondary Sector
Coming together

What is need for success across sectors
The following topics were focused on
Classroom Teacher
Classroom Teacher
Teacher Aide
Teacher Aide
Professional Interactions
Enhances to presence, participation and achievement
Their role in relation to students/children with complex needs and their family

How students/childrens & their whanau are included in planning & teaching

How they see the role of the teacher aide

How they interact professionally with others

Education Support Worker
Policies &
Procedures that
guides practices

Te Whariki
New Zealand School Curriculum

Te Whariki is based on a
socio cultural and ecological framework of theories
"This curriculum emphasis the critical role of socially and culturally mediated learning and of reciprocal and responsive relationships for children with people, place and things." (Ministry of Education, 1996)
Both have an underlying statement and promise of inclusionary practices within each setting
How do the
Education Act 1989
New Zealand Disability Strategies
Group Special Education Policies and Procedures
Wellington Kindergarten Policies and Procedures
Code of Ethics
DOPs (Desirable Objectives and Practice
But first what guides practice
How does each professional see their role in
relation to students/children with complex needs?
Specialized and adaptive dependent on individual child's needs

To work as a facilitator to support
social interactions

Involves all teaching and learning roles regardless of ability

Educate the child towards 'best'

Guide and help child reach their full

Works with child following their interest and interweaving other goals

"It is also extremely important to listen to what the child has to say, whether this be verbally or through body language"

To work alongside the child and support them in daily routines, activities and interactions

Important aspect is to support social interactions through play

Level of support is dependent on child's needs

Role includes supporting 'other' children
within the environment as well

"Developing a relationship of trust is incredibly important - you need to get to know that child to be able to effectively support them"

SENCO/HOD Learner Support
ORS Funded Teacher
Daily contact with students

Goal of the classroom programme is to promote independence.

Provides students with numerous opportunities to develop life skills, with social skills and vocational skills often being a focus, especially for senior students.

See the ORS funded teacher for /25 periods per week. The rest of the time students participate in option classes taking art, dance, drama, technology and food technology.

Some students are given more one on one time depending on their funding.

Students are offered the chance to participate in weekly ‘work
experience’ activities

Education Support
Kindergarten Teacher
Whanau attend regular IEP meetings which the ESW is involved in

Open communication, feeding back on the days experiences and events,

Working together on the goals and aspirations that they want their children achieving - it is important to respect this.

Understanding culture, respecting wishes and working hard to reach realistic goals is important.
SENCO/HOD Learner Support
ORS Funded Teacher
Attending regular IEPs where strengths are discussed from a competency point of view rather than a deficit point of view.

Support the breaking down of goals into realistic steps - if goals are unrealistic to achieve.

Writing in the ‘Communication Book’ that goes home every day - recording notices, reminders, happening of the day both positive and negative.

Kindergarten Teacher
Education Support Worker
The role of the Kindergarten teacher in relation to the Classroom teacher is to plan and work out appropriate strategies to support transition as well as having consistent approaches with regular ongoing discussion.
Can be to support the
transition to school process.

The role of the ESW is also to
help plan the transition goals
collegiality with all members
of the ‘team’

School visit support

ORS Funded Teacher
SENCO/HOD Learner Support
Provides full and transparent support to the ORS funded teacher.

Ensures resources are available to teach the students effectively from basic classroom supplies to the placement of teacher aides with each class.
The teacher plans the individual programmes for students. She also

Runs the IEPs meetings and maintains regular contact with whanau.

Liaises and supports mainstream teachers with behaviour advice for students in mainstream option classes.

Follows school processes for positive recognition : assembly certificates, emails to Deans/Year Level Managers/3c Stickers, this is to ensure students are acknowledged as being part of the school.

Education Support Worker
Kindergarten Teacher
Support the ESW in their role working with the child

Sharing information, having good clear communication, share ideas and observations.

Support the ESW in facilitating and reaching the goals set in the IEP.

Working in partnership within an environment of mutual respect trust and consistency.

Responsibility is shared between the teacher and support staff for continuity.

Support with knowledge and

Pass on relevant
information from

Work with the child towards achieving IEP goals.

Support child according to GSE psychologist recommendations.

Working within a team, with and alongside each other.

Coming together to make sure that all the right strategies and supports are in place for success.

Communication between all those professionals.
SENCO/HOD Learner Support
SENCO/HOD Learner Support
ORS Funded Teacher
ORS Funded Teacher
Co-ordinates the teacher aide timetable to ensure the safety of students and staff are being met.

Provides weekly professional development for teacher aides.

Also has ‘difficult’ conversations with teacher aides when concerns have been raised
Guide teacher aides to support the students.

Have non-specific tasks each day and are in the class to listen to the teacher’s instructions and then follow up with students.

Encourages the teacher aides to foster independence rather than doing tasks for the students.

Kindergarten Teacher
Education Support Worker
Working with leadership through communication, sharing information and collaboration.

Working with Head Teachers, Senior Teachers, etc and participating in professional discussion and information sharing which happens daily, hourly, weekly and is seen as ongoing.

Working alongside GSE and
other agencies involved
with child & their

Not really involved with any aspects of leadership - apart from working with and alongside the Head Teachers of the Kindergartens

Liases with the SENCO/HOD Learner support regarding any issues she is concerned about.

Attend IEPs for students transitioning out of school or any that may have issues.

Informs each Year Level Manager and Deans about student success eg special Olympics or student achievements

Ensure all funding and resources that are specifically tagged to the ORS students actually make it to them.

Advocates for the students to ensure their needs are sufficiently met.

Provides written reports to the Principal/BOT.

Carpenter, B., Cockbill, B., Egerton, J., & English, J. (2010) Children with complex learning difficulties and disabilities: developing pathways to personalised learning, Retrieved from http://clickspecialednz.com//../Children20%with%20Complex%20Learning%20Difficulites%20and%20Disabilities.pdf

Carrington, S., & MacArthur, J. (2012.) Teaching in Inclusive Communities, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane

Bevan-Brown, J. (2006) Teaching Maori Children with Special Needs: Getting rid of the too hard basket, Kairaranga Journal of Educational Practice, 7, 14-23.

Gargiulo, R.M., & Metcalf, D.J.(2010) Collaboration and Cooperative Teaching: Tools for Teaching All Learers. In Teaching in Today’s Inclusive Classroom: A Universal Design for Learning Approach, Wadsworth Cengage Learning, United States of America

Geva, E., Barsky, A. & Westenoff, F. (2000) Interprofessional practice with diverse population: Case in point, Greenwood Publishing, Westport

Higgins, N., MacArthur, J., & Kelly, B. (2009) Including disabled children at school: is it really as simple as ‘a, c, d,?’, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 13 (5), 471-487

Kelly, B. (2005). ‘Chocolate … makes you autism’: Impairment, disability and childhood identities. Disability & Society, 20(3), 261-275

Mentis, M., Kearnery, A. & Bevan-Brown, J. (in press). Interprofessional learning as a model for Inclusive Education. In. S. Carrington & J. MacArthur (Eds.) Teaching in Inclusive Communities, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane

Ministry of Education (1996) Te Whariki: Early Childhood Curriculum, Learning Media, Wellington, New Zealand

Ministry of Education (2007) The New Zealand School Curriculum, Learning Media, Wellington, New Zealand

Prude, K. (2006) “Special” or Inclusive Education? Children and disability in early childhood education. Early Childhood Folio, 12-15

Smith, A. (1998) Understanding Children’s Development 4th edition, Bridget Williams Books Ltd, Wellington, New Zealand
Interprofessional practice is defined as "a shared understanding enables
teachers and other professionals to work together constructively resulting in effective interprofesional practice. Interprofessional education and interprofessional practice is not just 'team work' it goes deeper than this this to include collaboration and an understanding of a range of perspectives" (Mentis et al, 2002)
How does each professional see their role in relation
to Whanau of students/children with complex needs?

How does each professional see their role in relation to classroom
teacher of students/children with complex needs?
From an early childhood perspective we have included working alongside
'the school teacher'

How does each professional see their role in relation to the
support work/teacher aid of students/children with complex
From an early childhood perspective we have the ESW view of
their role

How does each professional see their role in relation other professional interactions?

Barriers to presence, participation and achievement
Through Interprofessional Practice
Early Childhood
Secondary Sector
role of the teacher/teacher aide
Student/child in
planning and teaching
Whanau in planning
and teaching
Secondary Sector
Secondary Sector
Secondary Sector
Early Childhood Sector
Early Childhood Sector
Early Childhood Sector
Through Interprofessional Practice
Early Childhood
Secondary Sector
Secondary Sector
Secondary Sector
Secondary Sector
Early Childhood Sector
Early Childhood Sector
Early Childhood Sector
Through role
of the teacher/teacher aide
in planning and teaching
Whanau in planning
and teaching
Shared Knowledge, open communication, knowledge of individual child (Strengths and interests).

Planning and Assessment is a shared process - all teachers are involved.

Provides consistency which in turn provides an underlying security and predictability.

Involves good communication that help support each child within whichever environment they are in.

Consistent and strong communication and all coming together to support the needs of the child.
Planning for and providing programmes
that best fit each individual student.
Through IEP goals and the other being a class wide

Professionally interactions with other staff at the school - providing background information and advice.

Professionally interactions with outside agencies ensuring adequate support.

Ensuring the allocation of the Special Education Grant (SEG).

ORS funding applications and oversees the allocation

Facilitates the student transport

Works with the Ministry to apply for assistive

Resourcing schedule meetings with Spec
Ed workers and the Ministry for interim
response funding when necessary.
TEAM WORK - Joint responsibility, communication, support and working towards common IEP goals.

Professional leadership and support.

Increasing the percentage of session time that the child experiences a 1:1 adult presence through the ESW.

ESW provides familiarity and continuity.
Work with and alongside child to support the development of social interactions and goals.
Providing a safe working environment for each student.

To access options that may not normally be available due to health and safety constraints.

Professional development for teacher aides to better understand student diagnosis.

Encouraging students to strive for success by working alongside.

Teacher aide facilitates different parts of the classroom programme e.g. work experience
Children are active participants drive
their own learning.

Children’s voices are recorded in ‘assessment’

Learning stories and natural events that occur during the day as well as incorporating IEP goals

Involves making personal choices about what they do and negotiations

More motivation to participate and achieve when the child is empowered to chose.
Developing timetables to reflect what courses students may want to participate in & negotiating access to these courses with HOD’s.

Developing programmes that enhance life skills. Students are involved in meeting with the classroom teacher and deciding what content they would like to focus on e.g. of this are the TRUMP programme where students are offered supported unit standards at Level 1.
Working in partnership allows for open communication and information to be shared freely and easily.

Provides consistency for the child

The family/whanau are involved in developing IEP goals for the child as well as individual goals they want the child to achieve, these can include cultural goals.

Knowledge from the family/whanau in planning allows for all to gain a holistic picture of the child - sometimes home and Kindergarten views can be different.

Considering culture when communicating with different families.

Invitation to share in IEP meetings and celebrate the success of students.

Ensuring parents have a voice at all IEP meetings,

Parents can approach the teacher to suggest topic ideas and special interests

Invited to be part of classroom based activities

Attitudes - of families,
teachers, community

Understanding behaviour or what the behaviour is trying to communicate.
Limited hours for support staff and opportunities for teachers to be able to up skill.

Contract support hours the ESW has.

Support transition, can but not always include the ESW can be dependent on funding

Limited time for sharing and evaluating strategies.

Teachers perception of the teacher aide and their role - the removal of ‘your here you sort it out’ can occur.

Ages of the child, and the appropriateness of the child being involved in IEP planning and development.
Insufficient ongoing communication.

Need to develop effective communication methods (between whanau/GSE/Kindergarten/teacher aide) which can be used when they are changing day-to-day circumstances.

Other peoples perspectives of the family and the child - judgement is a huge barrier.
Supporting the teacher the implementation of ideas and programmes become more realistic.

Respectfully encouragement of sharing knowledge and ideas

Everyone is a team member

Understand needs eg time constraints, skills (or lack of)

Prioritise what needs to be addressed and set time frame.

Being an advocate for the child

Be aware of the environmental conditions which may affecting learning

Encourage parent to share knowledge and ideas

‘The messages clearly indicate that parents and whanau want to be consulted, involved and empowered in their child’s education’ (Bevan-Brown, 2006) - Whanau

Ensure services are well coordinated

Consider different perspectives from different agencies - IP
“Effective working relationships are characterised by teachers and aides’ developing a shared understanding of their professional roles, responsibilities, boundaries and ways of working together for the good of all students”
(Carrington & MacArthur, 2012)
"Primary challenges to interprofessional practice include power and politics, funding, territoriality, educational bases, humanistic concerns and legal issues."
(Geva, Barsky & Westenoff, 2000)
"Interprofessional education occurs when professionals from different area learn with, from and about each other to develop a shared understanding of their different practice. A shared understanding enables teachers and other professionals to work together constructively resulting in effective interprofessional practice"
(Mentis et al, 2012)
"Together, parents,
teachers and other
professionals can
illuminate the learning
pathway for the child,
using a combination of
acquired information,
applied wisdom and
previous experience"

(Carpenter, Cockbill, Egerton
& English, 2010)
Students “need to be given the
opportunity and the means to
make decisions about matters
that effect the and to exercise
their capabilities”
(Higgins, MacArthur & Kelly, 2009)
Purdue (2008) states that
teachers who supported
inclusion were active in identify
and removing barriers to
learning and participation for children with disabilities.
Modifying the curriculum and environment, adapting teaching approaches,
and working collaboratively with others to meet a child’s support requirements were ways in
teachers ensured that a child’s learning needs were
meet. (pg. 14)
"...interprofessional practice focus on how practitioners from different professional backgrounds work together..."
(Geva et al, 2000)
Principle 1 - Community Engagement
"The curriculum has meaning for students, connects with their wider lives, and engages the support of their families, whanau, and communities." New Zealand Curriculum

Principle 2 - Learning to Learn
“The curriculum encourages all students to reflect on their own learning processes and to learn how to learn.” New Zealand Curriculum

Principle 3 – Future Focus
“The curriculum encourages students to look to the future by exploring such significant future-focused issues as sustainability, citizenship, enterprise, and globalisation.”
(Ministry of Education, 2007)
Three Principles of the NZ Curriculum
Sharing personal interests with the parents.

Working together to achieve goals set

Attending IEP meetings
“Teachers can not provide an appropriate learning context for children unless they know them, their families and their cultural context well” (Smith, 1998)

"Values include honesty, integrity cooperation and respect, and are the basis of successful interprofessional practice" (Mentis et al, 2012)
“Successfully meeting the needs of learners with special needs requires collaborative relationships and cooperation between and among a wide range of professionals as well as parents”
(Gargiulo & Metcalf, 2010)
“Meaningful collaborative consultation necessitates mutual support, respect, flexibility, and a sharing of expertise. No one professional should consider him or herself more of an expert than others. Each parties involved, including parents, can learn and benefit from the others’ expertise”
(Gargiulo & Metcalf, 2010)
“No one else will know the child as well as parents do; their experiences predate and exceed those of professionals”
(Gargiulo & Metcalf, 2010)
"The teacher aide allows for doors to be open and for the child to be supported in their learning"

"Planning needs to have the best interest of the child at the heart of it."
“Negative dominant discourse imposes categorical identities on disabled children”
(Kelly, 2005)
Key Findings
‘Barriers to learning for disabled students may be attitudinal, organisational or practical.’
The Open University (2006)

means physical
access as well as access
to the curriculum

of the needs of
disabled people and the
barriers they may experience

that you may
need to do things differently

of the effects of
hidden difficulties, such as
pain, tiredness and
emotional stress

The Open University (2006)
Professional constraints/boundaries as to what agencies are able to do

Lack of follow through, because of staff turnover or failure to complete paperwork

Outside agencies place limitations on a child based on diagnosis


Others views are more important than others which creates
Funding - The Ministry funding only goes so far so

Teacher aides sometimes want to dictate the hours they want to work

Sometimes the lack of consistency of a teacher aide due to funding

Teacher aides can take over the task from the student

Need monitoring which impacts on the teacher times.

Professional development opportunities
are limited for teacher aides

Departments create barriers by not accepting students stating health and safety or refusing to take the student without a teacher aide

Student may be unable to communicate their ideas

Students sometimes have a lack of self-belief in their own ability or what they may be able to achieve

Parents unrealistic expectations of what they want their child to achieve

Cultural considerations where professional
situate themselves as having all the knowledge

Availability of whanau

Parents create the barriers by not taking responsibility for the learning and development

Some parents also have complex needs themselves

Shared process/knowledge between agencies/support

Good, open communication, partnership

Knowledge of the individual child – information sharing

Ministry guidelines being adhered to e.g. allocation of resources

Roles need to be clearly defined - follow through

The needs of the student and whanau are met

Safe Environment - Continuity and Familiarity

On-going professional development for teacher aide

Promoting success

Empowering and motivating children to choose something that interests them.

Allowing student choice rather than everything being teacher driven, this is supported by Smith (1998)

Use of Narrative Assessment - Social stories

Considering different cultures when communicating

Shared goal setting derived from special interests or needs

Ensuring there is a parent voice at IEP meetings

Key Findings
Lack of communication

Lack of understanding about the strengths of a child

Agencies perceive themselves as experts over and above others

Time constraints for IEPs and other meetings

Undermining of authority

Low expectations of achievement

Limited funding for support is allocated by the Ministry

Professional development for teacher aides is lacking

When the teacher aide takes over the decision making of the student

When the teacher abdicates their responsibilities to the teacher aide who may have limited knowledge/experience

Assumptions are made about a student's lack of ability based on
their diagnosis

Unrealistic expectations causes conflict

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