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Arctic Tundra

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Ashley Kohagen

on 3 May 2010

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Transcript of Arctic Tundra

Double click anywhere & add an idea Arctic Tundra The Sun shines almost 24 hours a day in the Arctic Tundra in the summer. In the summer the tempurature can only get up to 3 degrees C or 12 degrees C. In the winter the weather is extremely cold and can only be -28 degrees C or -70 degrees C. In the winter, the sun hardly ever rises in the Arctic Tundra. The precipitation in the Arctic Tundra is about 6 to 10 inches a year which is not very much. Most of the precipitaion in this area is from snow fall. This area has alot of standing water do to permafrost. Permafrost is the line of frost that keeps the water from soaking into the ground, this happens in the summer. In the winter the cycle repeats itself. Climate Geology Animals Plants Unique Plants in the Arctic Tundra have to adapt to their surroundings in very extreme ways. Things they need to adapt to are cold, harsh winds, frost heaves that move the soil, heavy snows, constantly changing tempuratures, and being able to carry on photosynthesis even though hours of light can be slim. Cotton Grass Since the Arctic Tundra has permafrost it makes it difficult for many trees to get their roots deep enough in order to live. There are only a few trees but they are found in the lower altitudes. Location Even though the growing conditons are very harsh in the Arctic Tundra, there are about 1,700 different plant species that grow. In the Growing season there are about 400 different flowers that bloom. Though the growing season is only about 50 to 60 days and they dont last very long. The plant groups are often times made up of the lower plant groups such as mosses, liveworts, lichens, fungi, and some kinds of algae. Arctic Willow This is a dwarf shrub that grows close to the ground so it can avoid as much wind as possible. So it can avoid the permafrost also, it has grown a very shallow root system. The leaves of the plant will often times spread across the ground like a carpet. Cotton Grass is called so because of the flowers that it produces. They are small puffy balls that resembles cotton. This plant provides as food for passing snow geese and for young caribou. The cotton benefitted their growth. The native people used to use the seed heads as oil lamp wicks. Arctic Poppy The Arctic Poppy can grow in harsh and even impossible conditions, perfect for the Arctic Tundra. They can grow in difficult places such as among rocks and in little soil. The flower is a cup shape made out of four petals, so this is perfect for soaking up as much sun light as possible. They only grow to be a maximum of about 10 to 15 cm high. Bearberry The Bearberry has the perfect defence against the harsh conditions that the Arctic throws at it. It is, like most of the other plants in the arctic, a low lying plant so it can avoid the wind. It is an evergreen that has a leathery leaf and silky hairs that gives it more protection. It got its name because bears like to eat its red berries. Purple Saxifrage This plant is also known as the 'cushion plant' becuase of its looks and where it is found. This plant, too, is low to the ground and grows in clumps. This plant is one of the earliest to bloom. The purple, star shaped flower can grow with snow around so it is many times the only color you will see in a vast sea of white. Plant Adaptation and Growing Information Conditions and Types Tempurature Rainfall Winds Arctic Fox The Arctic Fox finds his home in burrows that are in frost free ground, low mounds of dirt, or rock piles. This animal will scavenge for food and find other small animals. Sometimes they will follow larger predators and eat the things that they leave behind. It will use its large bushy tail to keep itself warm. Caribou The Caribou has short legs that are strong and durable so they can easily climb around in the mountains and on ice. It's brown coat is dark brown in the winter and lighter in the winter. They have large spreading hooves that help to support them on the ice. If the conditons get bad enough they can go into a partial hibernation. Grizzly Bear The Grizzly bears have good physical strength and, over a short distance, are actually very fast. This helps them to get food. They are very aggressive and can defend themselves against predators like wolves and mountain lions. Grizzly bears also have a good sense of smell so they can sniff out food easily. Polar Bears Polar Bears are the largest carnivore on land. A polar bears fur is actually clear so that most of the sun light can get to their black skin. This helps them to absorb heat and stay warm. Their claws are ver ysharp so that cathcing seals, their pray, is easier. They spend alot of time just eating and resting on ice packs. Snowy Owl The Snowy owl is one of the largest of all the owls. They are called snowy owls because they have white feathers. The snowy owls prey on animals such as arctic fox, rabbits, lemmings, voles, and different seabirds. The owls stomach digest everything but the bones, skin, hair, and teeth so they form a pellet and throw that back up. Soil Type There is a permanently frozen subsoil in the ground that is affected by the permafrost. The surface soil, which is usually rocky, will thaw in the summer if the region it is in gets warm enough. With the frozen ground it does not alow the melted water to get away very easily. Because of the standing water there are sometimes different bogs and ponds that form on top of the soil. Terrain The land in the Arctic Tundra is very flat with not alot for a very long time. However with the constant freezing and thawing there tends to be frost boils and frost heaves that are formed. This is when the land buckles upward do to the water freezing and unfreezing. This causes a few blemishes in the normally flat terrain. Where it's found The Biome of the Arctic Tundra is found in the very extreme top and bottom of the earth. This is because it is the coldest hear and the area doesn't get as much sunlight. This will keep the temperature very cold and the sun is either always up or always down. The World's Largest Biome... The Arctic Tundra can be a very windy place. The wind speeds can reach between 30 and 60 miles per hour. With vertually nothing to stop the wind from blowing it will keep going for miles and miles until it hits a builing or mountain range. Animal Behavior Adaptations Animal Physical Adaptations To protect themselves from the harsh winters many of the animals had to make changes to their daily living. Some of the animals only stay around for the mild summer climate and then when winter comes they go somewhere warmer. This means that they migrate; usually with a pack or group. However, some of the animals that stay around hibernate. They will go somewhere warm and sleep. Yet some just tough it out on their own. Some of the animals physical appearance has changed in order for them to better live in the Arctic Tundra. Body shape can can have a big effect on their survival. Many times the animals that live in the Arctic Tundra have compact bodies so they can keep in more body heat. They grow slower than other biome animals do because they have less resources to support their growing bodies. And of course their fur needs to be thick and warm. Some smaller animals even use the snow as an insulator for their dens and nests. Video Symbiotic Relationship In a Biome that is so desolate and alone, the plants, animals, and humans need to learn to rely on each other. The Arctic Tundra wouldn't be able to survive if everything didn't work together. For example, we people and the bears might eat a deer who had eaten some Arctic Willow. Another way may be if an owl eats a rabbit that eats a small plant. And of course there is the polar bear that needs the seals. There are plenty of relationships in the Arctic Tundra and they all need each other in order to survive. Desert? Sun Patterns Depends... It can be known as the coldest desert because even though it is mostly snow and ice it still doesn't have enough precipitation. "Biomes of the World." Web. 29 Apr. 2010. http://www.thewildclassroom.com/biomes/arctictundra.html

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