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Copy of Graduation Project

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mohamed hassan

on 22 September 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Graduation Project

GLT Advantages
converting natural gas to liquid fuel benefits the environment into two ways . first, the resulting hydrocarbons are pure and burn cleanly . it is colorless , odorless and low in toxicity .
second, converting gas to liquid allows producers to transport and market associated gas that would otherwise be flared into the atmosphere
sulphur and aromatics and has a very high cetane number. Cetane number
is a measure of fuel combustion quality – the higher the cetane number, the more complete the combustion. GTL Fuel has a cetane number of 75-80 much higher than the typical refinery diesel range of 45-50
Greenhouse Gas Emissions GLT Vs LNG Disadvantages GLT Vs LNG GLT Vs LNG Gas To Liquid Introduction
Actual Plant Agenda Natural-gas processing Fluid Catalytic cracking
Alumina-catalyzed cracking
Steam cracking Hydrocarbon Cracking 2- The GTL Projects around the World

The main GTL projects worldwide can be divided into two categories

a- Current GTL Projects : Projects which already exist, and have worked for some time.

b- Potential GTL Projects : Projects which are under construction or planning GTL PROJECTS To build a successful GTL project in any country, there are some conditions and
requirements that must be present :

1- Large gas reserves : 4 - 5 Tcf minimum to provide a 500 - 600 MMscf/d For 25 years

2- Expansion opportunities are desired : ideally 10 - 20 Tcf should be available to allow future expansion

3- GTL projects are very capital intensive and require low-cost feedstock gas that is isolated from high-priced gas markets.

4- Rich gas : The high Btu content of the feedstock gas is required

5- The gas field must be remote and difficult and expensive to transport to markets.

6- There should be no other possibility to invest the gas field with any other conventional project

7- GTL project can be integrated with other industrial facilities and share common infrastructure

8- The gas field should be located in a place not far from an exporting point like a port, pipeline, highways…etc. GTL PROJECTS The GTL projects in Egypt

In the field of gas to liquids technology, Egypt is aiming to build big GTL projects, and it has signed some agreements with experienced companies in this technology

- With Shell Company and (EGPC) have signed , a Development Protocol for a 75,000 bbl/day Gas to Liquid (GTL) conversion plant using Shell's Middle Distillate Synthesis (SMDS) process (which Shell has developed at Bintulu, West Demiatta on the Mediterranean coast is the proposed location.

Ivanhoe Energy and the (EGAS) have signed an MOU to conduct a Feasibility Study about building and operating a GTL project in Egypt. If the prove that the project will be cost effective, then the Egyptian company will take care to provide it with a 4.2 Tcf of natural gas for twenty years in daily rate of 600 MMscf/day. The production capacity of the project is expected to be 45,000 - 90,000 bbl/day.

Also there is other projects under discussion in Oman, Algeria, and Saudi Arabia GTL PROJECTS 3- The GTL Projects in the Arab Countries

- The GTL projects are expected to spread in the Arab Countries similar to its spreading around the world Specially that Arab Countries only have more than a quarter of the total world natural gas reserves.

- By the end of the previous century, serious thinking of building Gas to Liquids (GTL) projects immersed in some Arabic countries, especially those which own giants natural gas fortune, and here are some of projects. GTL PROJECTS Counting ongoing and future GTL projects is difficult , but According to

Front End Engineering Design (FEED) studies , there are roughly 40

projects worldwide of a total production capacity around 3.4 MMbbl/day.

Within these projects about 10-15 GTL plants planned for construction

within the next 4 - 9 years. GTL PROJECTS The GTL projects in Qatar

Qatar is preparing the ground to become the world’s leading producer of clean fuels using gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology. With its huge reserves of natural gas in the offshore North Field (Ras Laffan), Qatar is setting the pace for what looks like being a major growth area in the global hydrocarbon industry. GTL PROJECTS

-GTL can convert it into liquid form that is easier to export. This is the same reason why such countries convert natural gas into methanol and liquefied natural gas (LNG). GTL PROJECTS 1- INTRO
-The world proven and potential gas reserves are about 6040 Tcf , most of them occur in the middle east and the former soviet union countries, while the rest are distributed around the world.

-The presence of oil reserves in a country does not mean definitely that it should have a natural gas fortune as well.

- This table shows the distribution of natural gas reserves among the different countries around the world.

- Middle East countries for Ex. Have huge
reserves of N.G but little local market
for it and no pipeline infrastructure to
ship it to larger economics. GTL PROJECTS

Shell’s GTL plant at Bintulu with gas field offshore sarawak was completed in 1993
It produces approximately 12,500 barrels per day (500,000 tons per year) of liquid petroleum products.


Sasol, chevron GTL plant at Escravos It produces approximately 33,000 barrels per day , and the plant may be expanded to 120,000 bbl/day within 10 years .
This plant is expected to cost US$8.4 billion and to become operational by 2013 . GTL PROJECTS Over view on the Projects around the
world :

South Africa

- Sasolburg

Sasol’s units: Sasol I, Sasol II, and Sasol III are CTL (Coal to Liquids) and not GTL units, but they still can
be considered as some kind of GTL plants since at the end they use the (F-T) technology to convert synthesis gas into synthesis liquid products.
started production in 1955 , now days the total productions of the three units have reached about 160,000 bbl/day.

- Mossel Bay
The Mossgas GTL plant was completed in 1992 , It produces 23,000 barrels per day (750,000 tons per year) of liquid petroleum products. GTL PROJECTS GLT Advantages
the resulting hydrocarbons are pure and burn cleanly .
converting gas to liquid allows producers to transport and market associated gas that would otherwise be flared into the atmosphere
sulfur and aromatics and has a very high cetane number. Cetane number
is a measure of fuel combustion quality – the higher the cetane number, the more complete the combustion. GTL Fuel has a cetane number of 75-80 much higher than the typical refinery diesel range of 45-50
Greenhouse Gas Emissions GLT Vs LNG Definition



GTL Products Contents Introduction GTL GTL Gasoil
GTL Normal Paraffin
GTL Kerosene
GTL Base Oils
GTL Naphtha (plastics)
GTL Waxes GTL Products Disadvantages
Transportation costs.
Non-existing infrastructure.
Energy content Advantages
Less greenhouse gas emission.
Less noise pollution.
Competitiveness to petro-fuels.
Proved at large scale. GTL Vs LNG Liquefied natural gas or LNG (methane, CH4) that has been converted to liquid.
LNG takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. GTL Vs LNG 1923 Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch

1939 World War II

1960s South Africa

From the 1960s through the 1990s, several companies specializing in synthetic fuels, explored and developed the basic FT technology History Gas to Liquids (GTL) is a loosely defined term that is generally used to describe the chemical conversion of natural gas to some type of liquid products.
In other words, Gas to liquids (GTL) technology is used to convert a carbon containing feedstock such as natural gas, to synthetic diesel fuels. Definition 1973 Further develop Fischer-Tropsch process

1983 build a plant in Amsterdam for larger scale
tests on paraffin synthesis.

1993 The first commercial GTL plant starts up at Bintulu, produce 12,500 BPD

2006 The Government of the State of Qatar approves the Pearl GTL project in 2006. The plant will be ten times the size of Bintulu. History Introduction &
Plant GTL Projects
Actual plant Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Heat exchange reforming Autothermal reforming and secondary reforming Partial oxidation (POX) Expander Coldbox Front End Clean Up (Pre-purifier Unit) Main Air Compressor (MAC)
Front End Clean Up
Cold box
Liquid Argon System Air Separation Unit Steam reforming (tubular reforming) Process&Plant GTL Process GTL Projects
Actual Plant Contains:

–the cryogenic heat exchangers
–distillation columns
–Associated valves and piping • Pre-purifier Unit (PPU) removes moisture and CO2

• Moisture and CO2 are removed to prevent ice and dry ice from forming laterly

• chiller to cool the air to 40-55F

• condensate separator to remove free water

• 2 vessels filled with dessicant and mole sieve material, which adsorbs the contaminants •Provide the required refrigeration to produce liquids in the distillation column system
•Air, Nitrogen or Waste Nitrogen is fed to the expander
•Heat transfer and eventually … Air main components

The three main components are:

• Nitrogen (78.1%)

• Oxygen (20.9%)

• Argon (.9%)

• In very large air separation units (ASU) Neon, Xenon and Krypton are recovered in small amounts. Air Separation Methods Cryogenic Air Separation Main Air Compressor (MAC) Syngas Producing Methods Adiabatic pre-reforming Iron-based catalysts Cobalt-based catalysts FTS has long been recognized as a polymerization reaction with the basic steps of:
1. reactant (CO) adsorption on the catalyst surface
2. chain initiation by CO dissociation followed by hydrogenation
3. chain growth by insertion of additional CO molecules followed by hydrogenation
4. chain termination
5. product desorption from the catalyst surface The following is the FTS reaction:

1. CO + 2H2 --CH2-- + H2O Hr (227°C) = -165kJ/mol
The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction is a secondary reaction that readily occurs when Fe catalysts are used.
2. CO + H2O H2 + CO2 (Water-Gas Shift)
Combining reaction 1 and 2gives the net reaction for Fe catalyzed FTS

2CO + H2 --CH2-- + CO2 (net overall FTS)
The required H2 to CO ratio for the cobalt catalyst is 2.15 but since the iron catalyst performs
WGS in addition to the FT reaction, the H2 to CO ratio can be slightly lower for the iron catalyst Chemistry Generally, the Fischer–Tropsch process is operated in the temperature range of 150–300 °C

Higher temperatures lead to
1.faster reactions and
2. higher conversion rates
but also tend to favor methane production For this reason,
the temperature is usually maintained at the low to middle part of the range Increasing the pressure
higher conversion rates and also favors formation of long-chained alkanes both of which are desirable.
Even higher pressures would be favorable, but the benefits may not justify the additional costs of high-pressure equipment, and higher pressures can lead to catalyst deactivation via coke formation. Process conditions FTS catalysts can lose activity as a result of

1) conversion of the active metal site to an inactive oxide site

2) sintering

3) loss of active area by carbon deposition

4) chemical poisoning a)High Temperature Fischer-Tropsch (HTFT)

High-temperature Fischer–Tropsch (or HTFT)
is operated at temperatures of 330°C-350°C and uses an
iron-based catalyst. This process was used extensively
by Sasol in theirCoal-to-Liquid plants (CTL)

The high temperaturereactors produce predominantly
gasoline and light olefins b)Low Temperature Fischer – Tropsch (LTFT)

The low temperature technology has originally been used in tubular fixedbed reactors at 200 - 230 °C.

It uses a cobalt based catalyst. This process is best known for being used in the first integrated Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) plant operated Kinds of Fischer-Tropsch Operations. The fixed-bed tubular reactor 1) the fixed-bed tubular reactor

The reactors contain 2,000 tubes filled with Fe catalyst immersed in boiling water for heat removal.

The water bath temperature is maintained in the reactor by controlling the pressure.

Wax accounts for 50% of the Products

The reactor is operated at 20-30 bar at an operating temperature of 220-260ºC.

Catalyst lifetimes are around 70-100 days and catalysts removal can be quite difficult.

operates at 350°C and 25 bar.


They are physically very complex reactors that involve circulation of large amounts of catalyst that leads to considerable erosion in particular regions of the reactor The circulating fluidized-bed reactors

1.These new reactors are half the cost and size of the circulating reactors forthe same capacity.

2.They also have better thermal efficiency with a less severe temperature gradient and

3. lower pressure drop across the reactor

4.Operating costs are considerably lower The low-temperature slurry reactor These 3-phase reactors consist of a solid catalyst suspended and dispersed in a high thermal capacity liquid


1.Compared to the fluidized bed reactors, the liquid slurry bed offers the advantages of better temperature control
, lower catalyst loading, and significantly lower catalyst attrition rates so it has longer life

2.The improved isothermal conditions in slurry bed reactors allows for higher average reactor temperatures leading to higher conversions to products

3.Slurry bed reactors also cost 75% less than the much more complex
multitubular fixed bed reactors. The fixed fluidized bed reactor GTL: It's a chemical process to convert natural gas to a liquid fuel
GTL passes through several steps: Project Description GTL Plant Description GTL plant Description Oryx Technology In QATAR Why DO Qatar need GTL? The process is only about 60% thermal energy efficient, it is a question of economics as to whether gas-rich countries such as Qatar use their gas feed stocks in GTL plants, export the gas as liquefied natural gas via tanker or pipeline, or just export the natural gas to domestic markets. GTL products can be stored and transported using existing conventional tankers and storage facility infrastructure, whereas LNG transportation requires liquefaction facilities, specially designed tankers and then regasification facilities at the other end Construction of new GTL facilities Qatar
has an additional option for what
to do with its surplus of natural gas.

The GTL plant also offers the chance of
producing higher value feed stocks for
other petrochemical industries in Qatar
such as polymers, fertilizers. Liquids storage vessels at Ras Laffan. Client : ORYX GTL Ltd. (51% Qatar petroleum –49%Sasol Synfuels International)
EPC contractor: Technip
Lump sum turnkey contract awarded in March 2003
Conversion of Natural Gas into liquid hydrocarbons products (34,000 bpsd GTL Diesel ,Naphtha and LPG)
Utility system started up in December 2005
Process unit commissioning from August 2006
On-spec GTL products to storage in January 2007 The plant is located in Ras Laffan industrial city (RLIC),significant industrial development of 100 km2 located 75km north of Qatar’s capital. Project Location Number of Units Engineering Parameters

Process Units :8 P&ID’s (for Units) : 600 Utility Units :7 Lines : 7000 Off-site Units : 2 Electrical Users (motors) : 661
Control Valves +On-Off+Mov : 1447
Equipment – items/pieces: 1056/1627 Construction Parameters

Site Preparation :900,000cum Instrument Cables : 1,200 km
Piping : 12800tons Instrument I/O : 18,000 pcs
Concrete : 42,000cum
Buildings: 6000cum Electrical Cables : 500km U/G
Sewer: 30km Electrical Transformers : 42pcs Packages : 3050
Steel Structures : 8000tons
Mech. Equipment : 26,000tons Test Packages : 3050
Insulation : 120,000m²
Painting : 200,000m² Loop checks : 8600
Construction Certificates : 194528 The investment for the project, jointly owned by Qatar Petroleum and Sasol, was a little over $900m. The facility is supplied with 330,000ft³/d of lean methane-rich gas from the Qatar North gas field and is able to produce 34,000bpd of liquids (24,000 barrels of diesel, 9,000 barrels of naphtha and 1,000 barrels of liquefied petroleum gas). Key plant components
The Oryx GTL plant uses the Sasol SPD process comprising synthesis gas production, low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch conversion and product work-up These core processes are supported by: The industry Vendors and erection contractors were engaged considering the size of the main equipments ( Diameters up to 10m .lengths up to 60m ,weights up to 2,000 tones) and piping and the complicity of plant’s civil structures A significant amount of instruments was installed to guarantee plant performance. The overall number of control and safety valves approached 1500 units The large amount of cooling needed and absence of available cooling led to many air coolers The incoming gas is also scrubbed with an amine scrubber since any sulphur-containing gases passing into the process are detrimental to the life of the catalyst.(hint) The waste heat generated from the plant is captured and channeled into electrical power generation to save on the process running costs. Project’s challenges-Construction The expansion of GTL technology in Qatar to build a further two plants over and above the original foundation plant will take the total investment to $6bn. The Oryx GTL expansion project is now underway. Sasol and Qatar Petroleum hope to be producing 450,000bpd of liquids by 2015 with several new facilities planned. Project’s challenges-Construction
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