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Transcript of Ancient Greece
- "Ancient Greek Culture and Society." Ancient Greece. University Press Inc., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013
- "Ancient Greek Time Periods." Ancient Greece. University Press Inc., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013
- "Climate of the World: Greece - Weather UK - Weatheronline.co.uk." WeatherOnline. WeatherOnline Ltd., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013
- Gabriel, Brian. "What Are Some Disadvantages & Advantages of an Aristocratic Government?" EHow. Demand Media, 08 Apr. 2011. Web. 25 Sept. 2013
- "Greece Natural Resources." - Geography. IndexMundi, n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013
- "What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Democracy?" What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Democracy? N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2013
- Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2013
The architecture of ancient Greece has influenced building styles today. The ruins of ancient buildings show us the height of architectural achievement reached by the ancient Greeks.
There are three styles of architecture:
The sturdiest and simplest of all three styles.
This style is very decorative.
This style is famous for its scrolls
Today, the remains of Greek cities can be found in Italy, Sicily, and Turkey. One of the reasons that they have lasted so long is that the Greeks built their temples, amphitheaters, and other major public buildings with limestone and marble.
Zeus- God of the sky and father of the Gods
Hades- God of the Underworld
Poseidon- God of the sea
Hera- Zeus's sister and wife, queen of the gods
Athena- Goddess of knowledge
Apollo- God of music and prophecy. He was one of the most important gods in Greek religion.
Delphi- Greeks came to ask questions of the oracle, was considered to be the center of the universe
Artemis- Goddess of hunting
Hermes- the messenger God
Aphrodite- Goddess of love
Dionysos- God of wine and theater
Ares- God of war
Hephaestus- God of metalworking
The Greeks worshiped many different Gods. They believed that Mount Olympus was the home of the gods.
Some of the events were:
the long jump
discus and javelin throwing
the pentathlon (a combination of these five events)
The victors at all these games brought honor to themselves, their families, their hometowns, and the Gods.
The olympic games were held every four year in honor of Zeus.
During the Archaic era (750-500 BC), individuality and uniqueness (and awareness of self) was a main issue in philosophy and art. Poetry and sculpture showed a more personal approach.
Art in the Hellenistic era (336-146 BC) paid less attention of politics and philosophy. Hellenistic art portrayed love and changing emotions.
The ancient Greeks are known for their perfection in art.
Men- If they weren’t training in the military or discussing politics, they usually attended dramas at the theater. It is thought that woman couldn’t watch theatre and men sometimes played women's roles.
Woman- Woman weren’t involved in politics and public life. They mainly did house work.
The Upper Class/Spartans
The Middle Class/Metics
The lower Class/Freedmen
The earliest civiliztions in Ancient Greece were probably the two tribes called the
Minoans and the Mycenaeans. The Minoans
lived on the island of Crete and the Mycenaeans lived on the mainland. These two tribes fought with each other and attempted to invade one another. The period of these wars is called the Greek Dark Ages. It lasted from 1100 B.C.
to 750 B.C. The fall of the
Mycenaeans ended this era.
The Archaic Period (750 B.C.-500 B.C.)
The Archaic Period was characterized by the advancement of art. It also saw the expansion of political theory, specifically in the form of the beginnings of democracy. During this time, Greece was broken up into independent states, called Polis, or city-states. Each city-state was independent to the others. Each had its own government and culture, although many city-states
had similar forms of government
The Classical Period
(500 B.C.-336 B.C.)
The Classical Period was basically Greece’s golden age. This is when it reached the peak of its political and cultural standings. This is when the widely known Alexander the Great ended conflicts with Persia by conquering it. The famous Parthenon was built on Acropolis during this time. The famous schools of Plato and Socrates were also founded in this age. The death of Alexander the Great ended this period and began the Hellenistic period.
The Hellenistic Period
(336 B.C-146 B.C.)
The Hellenistic Period is the era in which Greece’s influence was the greatest. Its culture and learning had become prominent in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor. This period was abruptly ended when Rome conquered Greece in 146 B.C.
Ancient Greece's Governments
Most children started school and the age of 7.
Athenians learned how to read and write, while Spartans trained for the war.
Right after the fall of the Mycenaeans, at the beginning of the Archaic Period, city-states were formed. Most city-states had a government called an oligarchy or something similar to it. An oligarchy is a government that is run by a small group of elites. These elites usually owned more land or were more wealthy than others. These "elites" are better known as aristocrats. This form of government lasted through the Archaic period.
The foods ancient Greeks ate are very similar to the food we eat today. Greeks enjoyed a varied diet. Some food didn’t come until the discovery of the Americas in the 15th century. Fish was a favorite and hunting brought game to the menu.
The people of ancient Greece traded with other cultures (like Egypt) by traveling on the Mediterranean Sea.
Pros and Cons of an Oligarchy
-It is more efficient than other types of government.
-The small group of rulers mostly make laws that are only in the best interests of themselves. They often leave out what is best for the majority.
A Mycenaean mask
Greeks invented the thermometer based on their recent studies on how air expands and contracts in different temperatures. Anaximander was the creator of the gnomon on the sundial which kept track of time. Ctesibius invented the first alarm clock, it dropped pebbles onto a gong at certain time intervals.
In about 550 B.C., or towards the end of the Archaic Period, an Athenian aristocrat named Pericles introduced the concept of democracy. It quickly caught on. The concept was perfected and many city-states took on the new form of goverment. However, none of them were nearly as powerful or stable as Athens's. Pericles became a great democratic leader. The definition of a democracy is: a government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system. The democracy Greece practiced is called a direct democracy, or a democracy where all power is exercised directly by the people.
Pros and Cons of a Democracy
-It protects the interests of all the people.
-People are more educated and involved about and in their government.
-It is a very stable form of government.
-Democracy is based on an unnatural amount of equality. Nature has made everyone differently. If nature had its way, the people that are weak, cowardly, or just plain stupid would not survive. However, in this form of government, their opinions and decisions must be taken into account.
-Some people don’t care to participate in their government
-It requires more money and more time.
Greece is still known as Greece today, even if it is smaller than it was before. Persia, which Greece conquered, is now known as Iran. And, as Emily said earlier, remains of Ancient Greek cities have been found in countries such as Italy, Sicily, and Turkey.
Greece is in the Mediterranean, which means hot, dry summers and moderate and quite wet winters. Summer temperatures usually reach 30 to 35 degrees celsius. If it is really hot, it can warm up to 40 degrees celsius. The winters are usually moderate. In northern Greece, it is not uncommon to see decent amounts of snow. However, in southern Greece, the winters are usually more mild.
Some of Greece’s natural resources include: petroleum, lignite (a kind of coal), iron ore, lead, zinc, nickel, and marble.
Harrison Roberts completed slides 2-7 and slides 24-37. Thanks!
Greek soldiers fought for personal glory not in organized formation. Their battles usually started with taunts and jeers. They used hoplite armor which was very expensive, the amount of armor they had varied on how wealthy the family was. The armor was very heavy also. They used varied weapons such as spears(doru). Doru were 7-9 feet long, they carried these in their right hands and had a strapped shield on their left arm.
Slaves are very important in ancient greek life, they cleaned, cooked, worked in the fields, mines, factories, shops, and ships. Most of the slaves and the poor in greece had very similar life styles. Slaves were restricted from school, using their own name, and entering politics. They weren’t citizens of ancient greece, they were property of their owners. There are lots of different ways you can become a slave.
Emily LaDow completed slides 8-23!!