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Transcript of Media Literacy
“The value of critical approaches that help students better understand the careful construction of media messages cannot be underestimated” Dr. Rodeslier University of Southern Florida (167).
“Purchases are motivated by the attempt to avoid conventionality and conformity. What was once cool, rebellious or alternative is recycled through consumer culture into the meaning of commodities” Boland (223).
"In its original sense, the term CSR is defined as a moral stakeholder obligation, emanating from a notion that business is responsible to society in general and thus corporations should be answerable to those who directly or indirectly affect or are affected by a firm's activity" Yoon(2-3).
"Others, however, believe that advertising aimed at children has a strong negative impact on their beliefs, values, and moral judgments. They argue that children are more vulnerable than adults to the persuasive influences of commercials because they still lack the cognitive skills to defend themselves against the attractive and cleverly produced advertising messages" Valkenburg(7).
Manipulative strategies are used on passive audiences
Advertisers use cultural perspectives, values, and hidden messages to "brand" audiences
Music, colors, and movement hook the viewer
Often we feel discontent with our lives and seek out anything to help us feel fulfilled, if even temporarily
Humans have a need for synergy, creativity, networks, human connections and changes/adaptations.
Concepts are often narrowed or completely overlooked
Humans have a natural and unnatural states in which our behavior is different, which changes as we develop physically and culturally
Society begins to feel hollow or fake with experience of rapid social change, like this empty jar ->
Critical thinking skills are developed early in life, usually functional by the end of middle school
Children need a safe environment in order to form these skills
Ethics in media is a diverse system of moral rules and regulations that govern the media process. The reason for them is multi-purposed i.e to make sure the natural laws placed over man are not violated, and to keep control over the media process. If these rules were not in place, the media would be more prone to use immoral tactics to sell their products, or spread their message.
“advertisers ‘are really playing into the insecurities of children and their desire to belong to a group’” Teacher qtd. in
Begoray et al
How can we do this?
What's at stake?
Advertisers target age, interest, style, insecurities, belonging, feelings of friendship, and loyalty
Children's health, decision making, behavioral patterns, individualism
A study was conducted by Sungwon Yoon and Tai-hing Lam on the alcohol industry. It shows that CSRs are oftentimes used as a method to discredit the claims made against alcohol.
A set of values, experiences, and knowledge must be interpreted by interacting actively or passively
Yet, rituals are natural ways of being purged of rebellious wishes and emotions and helps us to feel like we are willingly conforming to society
"Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the duty of a corporation to self-regulate its product and make sure it's in compliance with the laws imposed over it" Yoon(1).
Advertising can exploit values such as individualism, feeling like a hero, creating your own destiny, something exciting
When often this is an illusion
Advertising is just another form of speech, and in the United States everyone has the freedom of speech and press
Values are set through personal means, viewers have the right to make their own choices
By recognizing :
Rituals can help us to establish an identity through time, community and the differentiating from the past
Rituals in Sociology
For example some rituals are holidays and rights of passage
Rituals can also give us an opportunity to reflect upon our society, and ponder our own existence
We want to feel different and cool
CSR- Corporate Social Responsibility
There is more to the product that we see and often buy without question
The United States of..?
How does this relate to higher education?
If kids can learn social media literacy, so can we
College is a time when we really start defining who we are, and the choices we make reflect that
Boland, Tom. "Towards An Anthropology Of Critique: The Modern Experience Of Liminality And Crisis." Anthropological Theory 13.3 (2013): 222-239. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Sept. 2013.
Rodesiler, Luke. "Empowering Students Through Critical Media Literacy: This Means War." Clearing House 83.5 (2010): 164-167. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Sept. 2013.
Begoray, Deborah; Higgins, Joan Waharf; Harrison, Janie; & Collins-Emery, Amy. "AdolescentReading/Viewing of Advertisements." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 57 (2) (2013): 121-130. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Sept. 2013.
"The media is a powerful agent of socialization and a powerful institution in our society. I think it is the responsibility of education to uncover these realities, and to get students to think critically about the benefits and drawbacks of media."
CSU Department of Sociology Associate Professor (Personal interview November 17th)
We're trapped in the media fantasy!
(We need to exercise our brains- the most important muscle!)
Do infants have a chance at avoiding the media process?
Bobo doll experiment by Albert Bandura experimented on young children to see how viewing violence affected their behavior, which concluded the children were highly influenceable.
There we are Rammies!
Do you think that you were affected by media as a child?
A little self absorbed...
Corporations are turning people into blind consumers.
We sometimes place more value on products than we do on other people
Often we form our own opinions and do not like being told what to believe.
The idea behind free-market and trade is to give all people the option to choose their product, as well as give business owners the chance to compete against others. However, the power that they have amassed over the years is much greater than anyone could really have anticipated.
How media manipulates
With this power, corporations such as McDonalds, IBM, Apple, Coke, and AT&T, can employ tactics to consistently attract consumers to their product. However, none of the tactics these corporations are employing are technically illegal.
How Can These Industries Possibly Control Us?
A lot can go in to making an advertisment appealing: the color, sound, and images displayed are all carefully considered before finally publishing the ad.
Many corporations, such as McDonalds, try to appeal to a younger audience in order to instill a sense of nostalgia in the audience when they grow up.
Don't get the Happy Meal!
Free-Market and It's Abuse
Pocket Vacations. “How to think critically and learn anything.”
Youtube, Oct, 1 2012. web. November 25th 2013.
How does it feel?
Speech, music, and pictures
They focused on language, arts, health, background, ethnicity, values, ideas, messages, "ad land," and targeting...
Critical thinking and feelings of empowerment was seen as an improvement with these lessons.
A project by
, et al
on middle school students was done to test adolescent's internal questioning of media and what methods could be used to educate them
Who is it intended for?
Pacing, font, illustrations, and guest appearances.
What is the intention for what is being conveyed?
Who is the author, what are they saying that helps or hurts them?
Social climate, Context? Ideals, values, credibility
Should we be educated on what to think?
Miss representation. "How the Media Failed Women in 2013."
The representation project.
Youtube, December 3, 2013. web. December 5, 2013.
Randomusername999. "cigarette.ads.from.the.past." ABCnews.com. Youtube, December 5th, 2008. web. December 5, 2013.
Consumers are the driving force behind the free-market system as we know it. Without consumers, the products won't be bought and money won't be made.
step 1: create product
step 2: advertise
step 3: consumers buy product
step 4: profit
Yoon and Lam:"The illusion of righteousness: corporate social responsibility practices of the alcohol industry." BMC Public Health. 2013 13:630.
Buijzen, Moniek, and Patti M. Valkenburg. "The Impact Of Television Advertising On Children's Christmas Wishes." Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 44.3 (2000): 456. Academic Search Premier. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.
thaLionheart. "Bandura - bobo doll experiment" thaLionheart.youtube, February 22nd, 2010. web. December 9th 2013