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Transcript of WWII
Stalin was unprepared to go to war with Germany
Hitler did not want to fight a two front war
Agree not to go to war against one another and to split up Poland
Hitler Moves Through Europe
Germany uses the Blitzkrieg technique to take Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Belgium.
Then Hitler sets his sights on France.
French and British wait for the British at the heavily fortified Maginot Line.
Goal: To strike with a quick and devastating blow
PLANES- Luftwaffe (German Air Force) bombed airfields, factories, towns, and cities. Dive Bombers hit specific targets.
TANKS pushed their way through
Japan Expands As America Prepares For War
Takes the Philippines and other small Islands (U.S. territories)
Takes Hong Kong, Burma, and Malaya (British territories)
Moves further into Dutch East Indies and French Indochina
Executive Order 9066
President Roosevelt authorizes Japanese relocation
Battle of Midway
Air battle, June 1942
Japanese unable to go on the offensive anymore: 4 carriers and over 250 planes destroyed
Germany takes France
German troops invade France through Belgium, effectively evading the Maginot Line
France falls in a little over a month
Germans occupy Northern France and set up a puppet government in Southern France called Vichy France
Operation Sea Lion
Hitler hoped for British surrender
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill had no intention of giving up.
Germans change their tactics and decide to bomb London- Sept. 7, 1940
Firebombs and explosives rain down on the capital for 57 nights in a row, then sporadically until May
30,000-40,000 dead; much of London and other cities destroyed
Life During the Blitz
Though under constant attack, London doesn't break.
The British realize their own strength and become even more determined to stop Hitler.
Operation Sea Lion is a failure.
First time Hitler is stopped
Axis Powers Continue to Expand
Mussolini tries to take Egypt, Hitler aids Mussolini, British aid Egypt
Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia fall to Axis powers
Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary join the Axis Alliance
Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland.
Sept. 3- Britain and France declare war on Germany.
Hitler attacks from the West and Stalin attacks from the East.
Within a month, Poland has fallen.
Axis Aggression and Expansion-Allied Appeasement (Recap)
Japan invades China and takes Manchuria (1931); Second Sino Japanese War; League of Nations condemns Japan
Italy invades Ethiopia in 1935; League of Nations calls for punishment against Italy but can't enforce it
Lebensraum; Germany takes the Saarland, Austria, and Czechoslovakia; Allies denounce his actions but take no action
"We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender." -Churchill June 4, 1940
In response to this defiance, Hitler begins to plan Operation Sea Lion, or the invasion of Britain.
America supports Allies and Democracy
Neutral but helping
Lend-Lease Act (March 1941): U.S. can sell or lend war materials and supplies to countries
U.S. pledges to support people's right to choose their government
Japan Takes Advantage of the War
1940- Japan moves to take French Indochina and the Dutch East Indies
U.S. responds by banning the sale of war materials to Japan
Japan views this as a threat
Tension leads to peace talks
Dec. 7, 1941
Surprise attack, 350 bombers
Japanese bombed the American fleet at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii
2,400 Americans killed, 188 aircraft destroyed, 19 ships sunk/destroyed
29 Japanese planes shot down, 129 Japanese killed
Dec. 8- FDR asks Congress to declare war
Dec. 10- Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S.
Bataan Death March
Japanese invade the Philippines Dec. 7, 1941
75,000 Filipino and American soldiers surrender at Bataan on April 9, 1942
Forced to march 65 miles, 5 days to POW camp
Thousands die due to brutality
Beaten and Starved
Bayoneted or shot any who faltered
Liberated March 1945
Lieutenant General Homma charged with war crimes and shot
Real: Build a Japanese empire
Supposed: Help Asians escape colonial rule
Japanese were brutal conquerors
Seized food, destroyed towns, conquered people=slaves
Allied strategy to recapture some Japanese held islands to use as stepping stones to get to Japan
General Douglas MacArthur led American forces
Battle of Guadalcanal begins this campaign
April 18, 1942
U.S. air raid on military targets in Tokyo
16 B25 bombers took off from an aircraft carrier, bombed, landed in China
Goal to boost U.S. morale rather than strategic; 1st attack on Japanese mainland
The Battle of Coral Sea
1st attempt at stopping the Japanese
Fought with planes off of aircraft carriers
5 day battle in May 1942
Japanese sank the most ships
U.S. victory: Stopped Japanese advance and sank some ships which hurt their offensive capabilities
Japan is defeated but refuses to surrender
Allies bomb cities and factories in Japan
MacArthur works to reclaim the Philippines
British push the Japanese back in Burma and Malaya
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
August 6, 1945 the Enola Gay dropped the "Little Boy" over Hiroshima
August 8, 1945 the USSR invades Manchuria
August 9, 1945 Bockscar drops the "Fat Man" over Nagasaki
August 15, 1945 Japan surrenders unconditionally
Sept. 2, 1945 formal peace treaty signed; VJ Day
The Manhattan Project
Codename for the creation of the atomic bomb before Germany
Allied scientists with some German and Italian refugee scientists
Successfully tested on July 16, 1945 in NM
The bomb gets its power by splitting an atom
Equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT
Cost about $2 billion or $26 billion today
A Hard Decision
Potsdam Conference: Allies offer an ultimatum to Japan. Surrender or face "utter devastation"
Japan does not respond
U.S. President Truman must make a choice. Should he:
Use the bomb to end the war but kill innocent Japanese civilians?
Keep fighting with land forces but put more American lives at stake?
Hitler's Costliest Mistake
After failing to take Britain, Hitler turns his attention to the USSR.
Hitler wanted resources and to crush Communism and Stalin.
Operation Barbarossa- Hitler's Plan to overtake the Soviet Union.
Unleashes blitzkrieg in the USSR with 3 million soldiers, nullifying the non-aggression pact.
Stalin joins the Allies
Battle of Britain
August 1940- Luftwaffe begin bombing the Southern coast of Britain every day for a month
British Air Force fights back
German Luftwaffe fail to gain air superiority over Britain
Stalin taken by surprise
Soviets retreat; nearly 2.5 million die
Scorched earth policy upon retreat
Soviet winter stops German invasion; thousands of Germans to freeze to death in -40 deg F temps
Leningrad Refuses to Fall
Hitler tries to take the Soviet city of Leningrad by surrounding the city and cutting off any food or supplies until they surrender
The city holds out for 2.5 years and rations food to 2 pieces of bread a day
Over a million die, yet the city doesn't fall
The Big Three
The Allies Strategize
Focus on Europe 1st then the Pacific
Stalin calls for a 2-front war
Allies work their way in to Germany
Defeated Axis powers in North Africa and Italy, but Hitler sends reinforcements
Germany must fight on another front
The Most Important Battle
The Battle of Stalingrad
Stalin will defend the city!!
Winter- German army trapped, forced to surrender Jan. 1943
Red Army takes offensive, drive Nazis out of USSR
First Nazi defeat!
D-Day: The Allies Open A Second Front
D-Day- June 6, 1944 Invasion of France at Normandy
Allies BOMBED targets in Germany and France before invasion
PARATROOPERS- dropped behind enemy lines
BOATS brought troops who stormed the beaches
Pushed into France, forced German retreat
Allies Push Towards Germany
2 years of Allied bombing had Germany in a state of destruction and low morale.
Hamburg-10 days-40,000 civilians dead
Dresden-25,000-135,000 civilians dead
Battle of the Bulge- Allies try to push through Belgium to Germany, Germans puts up a fight and slow allied advance, both sides suffer terrible losses
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin meet at Yalta and agree:
Stalin must enter Pacific war within 3 months of Germany's surrender
Stalin would receive certain territory but had to hold free elections
Germany would be divided up into four occupation zones (USSR, US, Britain and France)
Allies close in on Germany from the East and the West
Hitler commits suicide, Mussolini murdered
May 7, 1945- Germany surrenders
May 8, 1945- Official end to the war, V-E Day (Victory in Europe)
Extended Thought of the Day
Imagine you live in Southern France under the Vichy government.
What would it be like to live under this Nazi French government?
Why might some of the French have collaborated with the Nazis? List some pros and cons of collaborating
Putting yourself in the situation, would you have been a collaborator or part of the French resistance?
Extended Thought of the Day
After France falls, Britain knows they will be next in line for attack.
If you were Churchill, would you surrender since the situation looks hopeless and you could save many lives or would you prepare to fight? Think about this, you are in charge of every life in Britain. Explain and justify your answer.
If you choose to surrender, come up with terms to negociate with Hitler. If you choose to fight explain how you would prepare and what your strategy is. Use your knowledge of how Hitler has went about the invasions of other countries for your response.
Allied plan to deceive the Germans about the time and place of the invasion
Blow up tanks, airplanes, and troops
Norway in the North and Pas de Calais in the South
Fake radio transmissions and codes
Many other fake sites to draw forces from Normandy
Crew No. 1 in front of B-25 #40-2344 on the deck of USS Hornet, 18 April 1942. From left to right: (front row) Lt. Col. Doolittle, pilot; Lt. Richard E. Cole, copilot; (back row) Lt. Henry A. Potter, navigator; SSgt. Fred A. Braemer, bombardier; SSgt. Paul J. Leonard, flight engineer/gunner. (U.S. Air Force photo)
Japanese navy and air force nearly destroyed, but still have 2 million men willing to fight to the death
Kamikaze pilots: Suicide bombers who flew explosive-laden planes into targets
Allies Gain Ground
Battle of Iwo Jima:
Costly battle; U.S. deaths exceed Japanese deaths
Originally going to be the base of the attack
Battle of Okinawa:
340 miles from Japan
Planned to launch an attack on Japan from there
Bloodiest battle; over 100,000 deaths
Effects of the Bomb
70,000 killed instantly
300,000 total deaths attributed
4 square miles flattened
Nothing left at all within 1 sq. mile
7,000 degrees in the center
Felt over 37 miles away
Shattered windows in 10 square miles
Black rain fell after the bomb; dirt and radioactivity
Effects of the Bomb
30,000 more by the end of the year
Bomb weighed 10,000 lbs
More powerful than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima
Flattened about 2.5 sq. miles
The power to send messages through time has just been invented. President Truman sends a message ahead in time to the year 2015 asking future Americans whether or not he should drop the Atomic Bomb on Japan or not. Knowing what we now know about the bomb and its effects, positive and negative, write a letter to President Truman explaining the effects of the atomic bomb and advise him as to what he should do. You may choose either position; however, you need to support what you say. Your letter should be at least most of a page.