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Transcript of Metis Culture
Caroline Metis Culture Introduction In this presentation you will learn about Metis
culture. You will find that they had tough way of survival. You will learn about the traditional hunting rituals, clothing, homes, medicines, religion and food. Medicine Traditionally, the Metis lived a lifestyle that had harmony with nature. The healing knowledge of plants and their roots, bark, flowers, fruits, leaves, oils, and seeds, was passed down through the families, usually from mother to daughter. Nearly every family had one member who was knowledgeable about healing teas, salves, poultices, liniments, preparations, and foodstuffs, they were a natural part of daily living. Women and girls went out to gather ingredients and older women were the herbalists. Clothing and Homes “The Métis were famous for their floral beadwork, and they were often called the ‘Flower Beadwork People’. The symmetric floral beadwork, was inspired by European floral designs, sown with seed beads. Beadwork was added to: Jackets, Bags, Leggings, Gloves, Vests, Moccasins, and Pouches. It was common for the Métis to decorate their saddles and other horse gear, as well. The Métis were also well known for their floral silk embroidery, which was introduced to them by the Nuns from Europe. The clothing of the Métis people, like most aspects of their culture, was a combination of both Native and European styles. Their clothing was greatly inspired by the clothing of the French-Canadian fur traders (les coureurs des bois), as well as the Native clothing of the area. The Métis women were in charge of making all the clothing for their families.” Traditional Metis Food Traditional food included:-La Gallete (bannock)
-Les Baigne (fried bread)
-La Rubaboo (metis soup)
-Les Boulettes (meat balls)
-Les Tourtieres (meat pie)
-Soupe au pois (pea soup)
-Poutine au sac (steamed pudding)
-Soupe au bin (bean soup)
-Le Flacon (custard)
-Pemican (dried meat pounded into powder, mixed with berries, spice and hot fat made into loafs)
Storage and cooking containers were made from buffalo hides, mainly rawhide with a willow wood frame.
These skin pots could not be placed directly over a source of heat. Instead, stones were heated over a fire and placed inside the container. If the container was filled with water, then the stones brought the water to a boil.
***You will be having some Bannock today, Bannock is a round flat bread that was typically associated with northern england, Bannock was introduced to the Metis when settlers from England came to north america (Canada). Bannock was easy to keep for long periods of time, so the Metis appreciated it. Conclusion BIBLIOGRAPHY:
http://www.metismuseum.ca/media/db/00721 Religion and Rituals Healing Teas The Metis had many herbal teas with many healing purposes; Red willow bark was a good healer for general ailments.Yarrow flower is good for clearing mucus discharge from the bladder, it opens pores, and reduces clotting time if used for internal bleeding. Sage leaves help eliminate spasms of the Gastrointestinal tract. Nettle leaves help expel gravel and stones from any organ, especially the kidneys. Echinacea root is used as a cleanser and purifier, and it heals infections, fevers, lung infections, wounds. Dandelion root ``acts as a tonic to the system. It is a good blood purifier and builder. ``Burdock root is ``one of the best blood purifiers, help reduce swelling and deposits in Arthritis. Use horsetail root helps” eliminate sickness or can be used as a medicine to correct menstrual irregularities”
Algae helps relieve cold symptoms and muskeg tealeaves helped to break fever. Sage “in a steam vapor helped relieve breathing problems." Cranberry juice is “used to prevent and heal bladder infections.” Cranberry bark helps relieve pain, and highbush cranberry bark was “effective in relieving muscle cramps, particularly in the stomach and menstrual cramps, while inhaling the tea steam eased asthma. It also lessened pains associated with labour contractions because it is a uterine sedative. Chokecherry bark and roots, were effective in relieving sore throats, stomach pain and diarrhea, the juice was also as an antiseptic.`` Winter-cold remedies were made by collecting cedar brush, balsam bark and cherry bark, and boiling them together to make a dark tea. Once the ingredients were removed from the liquid, the ill person would drink the tea for relief from coughs and to loosen tightness in the chest. Animal Products, Poultices and More “While some medicines came from plants and were ingested, others used animal products and were applied externally. Goose fat was applied to the chest to help a person suffering with a cold, fever or pneumonia. Skunk oil, as well, was rubbed onto the chest of a person suffering from a cold or bronchitis.” The Metis also used poultices to help heal the sick. Onion poultice is sliced onions, boiled in milk wrapped in a warm towel. Apply to the chest to relieve chest cold and bronchitis.” Mustard poultice is “combined dry mustard, flour, and water to make a thick paste, spread onto paper, covered and wrapped in a towel. Lay the towel on the person's chest and back until it tingles. The sick person must not go outside for 36-48 hours after having had the treatment, as, the body pores are now open and a draft could cause more illness than before.” The inner bark of jack pine and tamarack was also used as a poultice for deep cuts.
The Metis used many other plants, and their products as healing charms. “Rosehips are a good source of Vitamin C, (don’t eat the seeds). Used for infections, colds, sore throat, and cleansing toxins from the body”. Spruce gum “can be put into heated water and inhaled to relieve a cold. It heals cuts and sores well, (chew and apply directly to the wound). Use wild ginger root was good for preventing ailments of the stomach and intestines. Adding 3 or 4 tablespoons of dry ginger to bath water will help rid the body of waste and toxins by opening the pores.” Frog leaves are “Excellent for healing cuts, sores, boils. Apply directly on the wound.” ``Mint leaves, stems, and roots were chewed or made into teas to relieve colds, stomach ailments, chest pains and headaches.” “Pine and spruce needles used in a steam vapour also helped relieve chest and sinus colds”
“Certain trees have a form of painkiller in their inner bark similar to that in aspirin. By chewing on the bark from willow shoots, people were able to relieve headaches, stomachaches or other pains. Weegas root, or“rat root”, also had a pain relieving effect and was effective in fighting off colds, coughs, upset stomachs and fevers.” Metis used seneca root to help relieve chest colds, pneumonia, rheumatism, croup and whooping cough “To relieve sore throats, hot ashes were wrapped in cloth and placed around a person’s neck. Castor oil was drunk with tea to cleanse a person of illness. Birch bark was tied around a wound to stop bleeding and to speed healing. A wound treated in this way would heal in about a week, without leaving a scar. The pitch from spruce was used in combination with grease to help heal skin rashes and burns. In the event of broken bones, people used sticks or split logs to set the bone and fashioned canes and crutches out of wood.” Decorative Hobbies Materials, Sashes, Bags, Homes and Settlement The Metis made many clothes out of animal hide, they either used tanned animal skins, such as deer skins or moose hide, or they used cloth that they had acquired through trade with the Europeans. L’Assomption Sash became the most recognizable part of Métis dressing and a symbol of their people. The sashes were also used by voyageurs of the fur trade. The colourful Sash had many uses, including: Carrying items (knife, fire bag), Coat tie (tied around the waist to keep coat closed), Emergency sewing kit, Decoration, Makeshift tumpline, Markers left on buffalo (after killed- to mark buffalo as their property), Tourniquet for injuries, Rope, Saddle blanket, Towel, and Washcloth. An Octopus pouch got it's name because it appeared as though it had several leg hanging down. These bags were carried over the shoulder to carry pipes, tobacco, flint, and steel.
“On buffalo hunts and trade expeditions, the Métis camped in tipis. The Métis also had canvas tents that were brought over by the Europeans. When they were not hunting, they spent their time gardening and farming. Most Métis families lived and farmed along the Red and the Assiniboine Rivers in Manitoba. Log houses were the most common Métis dwellings. (They were basic square log cabins, made out of rounded logs with notched ends. The roofs were often flat.) Mud and hay were put on the outside of the house for added insulation. Small Métis settlements, or villages, had around 40-50 log cabins.” Inside the Home and Communities "Most of their furniture was made out of wood; wooden trunks, tables, and beds (covered with buffalo furs). Some cabins had wooden floors, while some had dirt floors. Buffalo hair and clay were added to the inside walls for added insulation. Typical Métis families decorated their walls with: guns, powder horns, bullet bags, animal skins, and snowshoes. The Métis either used mud ovens or iron stoves for cooking, and utensils were carved from wood, or acquired through trade.”
“Métis communities were established along the major fur trade routes, the fur trade routes were mostly near the important freighting waterways. The Métis were forced to adapt to the shorter growing season and the cold weather during the winter months.” By A,meena By Ameena by Honour by Sam C. & Caroline The religious beliefs of the Métis people were a combination of two worlds, like most aspects of their culture. Their spirituality was influenced by both their mothers’ Native heritage and their fathers’ more European beliefs. It was common for the Métis to combine elements of Native (mostly Ojibwa and Cree), and Catholic or Protestant religions. Many Métis people went to Catholic or Protestant churches on a regular basis. Many Métis were married in a church (following Catholic or Protestant traditions) and were buried in Catholic or Protestant cemeteries. The Metis hunted pronghorn antelope, moose, elk, mule deer, prairie bush rabbit, and wild birds like the prairie chicken, the sage grouse, the duck, and the geese. “If fishing was available in the area it was also a major source of food for the Métis people.” They fished for whatever was available in the area, and mainly caught: Salmon, Mackerel, and Trout.
“The Métis also gathered wild berries and edible plants.”“Berries were important food for the Métis. They were eaten alone, or added to a popular meal called ‘Pemmican’.”“Berries were stored in animal skins to prevent them from going bad.”The Métis used all parts of the buffalo that they hunted- nothing was wasted.They used buffalo skin to make: Containers, Shields, Buckets, Ropes, and Bags. They used buffalo bones to make: Knives, Pipes, Arrowheads, Shovels, and Clubs. They used buffalo horns to make: Arrows, Spoons, Powder Horns, and Ladles. Hunting & Gathering Music played an important role in the lifestyle of the Métis people. They held many community events that involved music and dancing. The fiddle was the most common instrument used by the Métis. Other instruments included the concertina, harmonica, hand drum, mouth harp, and finger instruments (like bones and spoons)
“ The fiddle was the French and Scots who first introduced fiddles to the Métis”. “The fiddles were handmade from maple and birch wood. Eventually the Métis people learned how to make their own fiddles, because they were so expensive to buy or trade for. “The Métis fiddle music had a distinct sound to it. The bottom string of the fiddle was tuned to an A (up a tone from G), and the rhythm of the songs was based on syncopation and extra beats (for dancing)”. “Fiddle music was often played accompanied by someone playing the spoons, drumming on a tin pan, or stomping (to keep the beat)”. Celebrating and Festivities This is a vest with Beadwork. This is a Mule Deer which the Metis hunted. This is a man wearing a capote (a knee-length jacket with a hood). This is a red willow tree. These are Rosehips. This is a Metis sash. These are decorative
snowshoes. This is a decorative powder horn. This is la Flacon or custard. This is Buffalo Sirloin. This is tasty bannock. This is a Metis burial ground. This is a Metis fiddle. This is a knife made from a Buffalo's horn. This is a prairie bush rabbit. This is buffalo meat being dried to make pemmican. Thank you for listening to our presentation about Metis culture. We hope you have learn much about their way of life. As you can see survival was their job, but it was easier than the pioneer's life because they had much knowledge of the land, animals, and plants. We have listed our bibliography below. Thank You! This is an Octopus pouch. This is a picture of some beautiful, floral embroidery the Metis practiced. This is an amazing example of the beadwork fashioned on a saddle.