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An Age of Revolutions
Transcript of An Age of Revolutions
The Scientific Revolution
Science Changes: advancements during the 1500s and 1600s
New Ways to approach science
Francis Bacon taught that scientists should observe and interpret facts
Rene' Descartes stressed logic and reason to form theories
Isaac Newton believed in testing theories using the scientific method, or controlled experiments.
The Enlightenment: The Age of Reason
a movement in the 1600s and 1700s in which people began to apply observation and reason to human affairs.
New ideas of the Scientific Revolution led to new ways of thinking in other areas!!
Some European rulers were inspired by Enlightenment ideas.
Frederick II of Prussia improved education and outlawed torture.
However-he allowed discrimination against Jews AND continued to have firm control over his people.
Joseph II of Austria-ended serfdom
Catherine the Great-Westernized and expanded Russia, peasant revolts made her less inclined for domestic reform.
Ideas of the Enlightenment helped shape modern governments and sometimes led to violent revolution.
Revolution in France: 1789-1799
French society was divided into three categories called "estates"
First Estate=Clergy made up less than 1% of the population owned 10% of the land, paid no taxes
Second Estate=Nobles made up about 1.5% of the population and owned 25% of the land. (Had important and powerful jobs), paid little to no taxes.
Third Estate= Wealthy Middle Class, Urban workers, and peasants made up about 98% of the population. Owned about 65% of the land, but this was mostly the middle class. Paid heavy taxes and had very few rights.
The Industrial Revolution
Began in Britain and spread from there-
A shift away from hand tools powered by animal or humans to large-scale machinery powered by fuels or natural forces.
led to growth in cities
rapid changes in technology
Scientists Make Discoveries:
Nicolas Copernicus argued that the planets orbit the sun
Galileo agreed and published evidence supporting this
This challenged church teachings so he was put on trial and had to say his books were wrong.
Isaac Newton described gravity and explained how objects move in space.
Results of Discoveries and Changes:
Scientific and technological advances improved life.
1. Agricultural advances led to larger harvests
2. inventors build instruments to measure longitude, latitude, and speed, improving navigation.
3. work by astronomers resulted in more accurate calendars.
4. the steam engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen and James Watt, which improved transportation and eventually led to factories.
Philosophers Study Society:
Nothing is beyond the human mind.
Two ways of looking at government:
1. Thomas Hobbes: all people are selfish and greedy and need strong rulers to govern them.
2. John Locke: thought that people were mostly good and had the rights to life, liberty, and property. His ideas have shaped modern democracy.
Views on the structures of government
Charles-Louis Montesquieu-believed that the powers of government should be separated into three branches.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau-the government depends upon the people's consent.
Changes in England:
In the 1600s parliament gradually took power from the monarchy.
Charles I was forced to sign the Petition of Right.
ended illegal taxation and imprisonment.
He continued to have problems which led to civil war and his execution.
England became a commonwealth under Cromwell
Charles II and James I continued to have issues with parliament which led to the Glorious Revolution.
William of Orange and Mary took the throne with no deaths.
William and Mary signed the English Bill of Rights ending absolute monarchy in England.
France was in debt and suffered terrible harvests
caused food prices to increase in an already unstable situation.
Citizens called for a meeting of the Estates General to address problems.
voting did not lead to reform.
King Louis XVI was unwilling and unable to control the nobles.
July 14, 1789 a mob stormed the Bastille marking the start of the French Revolution.
The Reign of Terror: 1793-1794
During the Reign of Terror, thousands of people were killed at the hands of a radical group called the Committee of Public Safety.
The “Purifying” Pot of the Jacobin
They shared many of the ideals of their middle class representatives in government!
The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class
Depicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist.
Most controversial figure of the French Revolution
Leaders in the National Convention
Became Minister of Justice
Robespierre had him killed
“Show the people my head, it is well worth seeing.”
“The Death of Marat” by Jacques Louis David, 1793
Napoleon Takes Power
Rose in the French military
took power from the 5 man Directory in 1799.
Created a huge empire and ruled as a dictator
brought many ideas of the French Revolution to other nations.
enforcement of the Continental system and the invasion of Russia weakened his army and he was eventually defeated and exiled. (TWICE)
French domination led to increased nationalism, or devotion to ones country.
Many Europeans also wanted more democracy
In 1848 revolutions broke out across Europe
by 1871 Germany and Italy had been unified.
Technology Changes Industry
Before I.R. most people were:
worked at home
Mid-1700s new machines in factories began to do the work once done at home
coal and steam power made steamboats and trains possible.
carried raw materials to factories and
goods to distant markets
Industry Changes Landscapes
Entrepreneurs build factories in areas that had a labor supply, resources and good transportation
Towns without coal, iron, or access to transportation often did not industrialize.
Towns that did industrialize grew quickly
led to housing shortages
lack of clean water
no proper waste disposal
Working conditions were
production is much higher in factories
new markets for goods are often located in European colonies in Africa and Asia
colonies also provided raw materials
advancements in research and medicine (germ theory)
Cities build sewer systems to remove waste and prevent diseases
Electric power was used in important new ways
cost of goods went down-people could afford more things
labor saving devices were invented-causing the standard of living to improve
Access to education also increased-even for girls