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Human needs model

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Margit Strobl

on 24 November 2016

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Transcript of Human needs model

The Client
The need to avoid medical contraindications to dental hygiene care and be free of harm or danger
Protection from Health Risks

Need to feel safe and be free from emotional discomfort in the oral care environment
Freedom from Fear and Stress
Need to avoid physical discomfort in the head and neck area (this is a strong motivator for individuals to make sure this need is satisfied)
Freedom from Pain
The need to be satisfied with one's looks and breath based on personal perceptions of physical characteristics
Wholesome Facial Image
The need to have intact and functioning of the covering of the individual's head and neck including the mucous membranes and periodontium
Skin and Mucous Membrane Integrity of the Head and Neck
The need for intact teeth and restorations to defend against microbes as well as provide adequate functioning and esthetics
Biologically Sound and Functional Dentition
The need to understand ideas in order to make good decisions about one's oral health
Conceptualization and Problem Solving
The need for taking responsibility for one's own oral health
Responsibility for Oral Health
Human Needs Conceptual model
Objectives
1. Define a human need and the human needs theory
2. Describe, in basic terms Mazlow's Hierarchy of Needs.
3. In general terms, describe the Human Needs Conceptual Model
4. Define the four paradigm concepts based on the dental hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model.
5. Define the eight human needs related to dental hygiene care including:
- a clinical example of each human need
- identify potential deficits
- give examples of interventions to meet an unmet need
6. Describe how to meet needs simultaneously during the process of care
Human Needs theory
Def: a human need is a tension within a person that expresses itself in some type of goal directed behavior until the goal is achieved. For example, hunger is a human need. An individual will behave in a certain manner until that need is fulfilled. It might mean growing vegetables or going shopping for food to satisfy the need.
Human Needs theory: fulfilling human needs plays a predominate role in human activity. Human behavior is organized to be able to fulfill any need that is not met. The dental hygienist identifies unmet needs during dental hygiene care and uses this to motivate the client and guide him/her toward disease prevention. Note: unmet human needs do not have to be limited to oral health.

Dental hygiene care promotes health and prevents oral disease over the human life span through the provision of education, prevention and therapeutic services. It is grounded in holistic care with the client's needs first and foremost in the process. In other words, the client must be at the center of the process of care and the dental hygienist must consider the client and his/her input in all aspects of that care.

Human Needs Conceptual Model
A theoretical framework for dental hygiene care made up of four major concepts that incorporates ADPIE and identifies 8 human needs especially related to oral disease prevention/health promotion:
client
environment
health and oral health
dental hygiene actions
please read pp 14-16 in Darby Walsh for more information on each of the major concepts
During the assessment information is gathered and evaluated. This includes:
verbal and nonverbal behavior during history taking
clinical findings
radiographic findings
unmet needs may include:
need to refer or consult with physician because of uncontrolled disease
may need to premedicate
evaluate lifestyle that may place the client at risk of injury (sports, etc.)
vital signs outside of normal
potential for an emergency in chair
During the assessment the dental hygienist assesses the following:
verbal/nonverbal behaviour (upon reception, HHU, and through the process of care
face and oral cavity for signs of stress
Unmet needs may include:
previous negative experiences in the dental office
cost of care
concerns about infection control, fluoridation
concerns about radiation exposure
white coat syndrome
oral habits
During the assessment this need can be assessed by:
client's verbal/nonverbal behavior
evaluation of the face and oral cavity for signs of physical discomfort
Unmet needs may include:
pain intra/extraorally
sensitivity
need for pain medication
discomfort during treatment
signs of anxiety
During the assessment the dental hygienist evaluates this by:
direct observation
casual conversation
information obtained from the health history
unmet needs may include:
dissatisfaction with color of teeth or facial profile
concerns about breath
numerous missing teeth
lack of both personal and oral hygiene
During the assessment this is assessed by:
direct observation of the head and neck
examination of the oral cavity including the periodontium
unmet needs include:
extra/intraoral lesions
swelling
inflammation
pockets greater than 4mm, attachment loss greater than 1 mm
BOP
Xerostomia
During the assessment this is assessed by:
assessing the dentition during the dental assessment
during the DHU
unmet needs may include:
defective restorations
difficulty chewing
missing teeth or teeth with signs of disease
caries
ill fitting dentures, or appliances
abrasion, erosion, abfraction
During the assessment this is evaluated by:
listening to the client's questions and responses to the dental hygienist's answers
unmet needs may include:
a lack of knowledge of oral diseases, the causes and the relationship or overall health
lack of understanding of recommended dental/dental hygiene care
lack of knowledge of self care procedures
has questions about DH oral care/oral disease
During the assessment this is evaluated by:
direct observation
gathering data pertaining to dental, personal, cultural and pharmacological information
unmet needs may include:
inadequate oral care that results in plaque biofilm and calculus accumulation
inadequate parental supervision during oral self-care (in the case of children)
no dental examination within the last 2 years
References
Darby M, Walsh M. Dental Hygiene Theory and Practice. 4th Ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Saunders; 2015.
Class Activities
Group discussion to clarify topic content
With a partner, write example statements of unmet needs for each of the human needs. Can use the examples in the Prezi
Scenarios: View each scenario and identify which human needs are not being met
Give examples of interventions to help fulfill an unmet human need. Can use the Prezi examples of unmet needs
Simultaneous meeting of human needs
Clients may have one or more unmet human need and the DH conceptual model addresses all of them through the process of care.

The exception would be if the client presents with an emergency (example: broken tooth that is painful) then the physiological needs take priority. Even through there are multiple unmet needs in this example (freedom from pain, responsibility for oral health and biologically sound and functional dentition) the freedom from pain will be the priority but a discussion regarding the client's responsibility to see the dentist will be addressed at the same time. Then the last unmet need is addressed by restoring the tooth.
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