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Literature Review Urban Form

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Juan Yunda

on 23 May 2015

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Transcript of Literature Review Urban Form

Talen (2006)
Ryan (2013)
Neighborhood-level social diversity: Insights from Chicago
This article looks at the patterns of diversity in the City of Chicago and its surrounding suburban towns in Cook County, Illinois, focusing in particular on the economic diversity of census block groups to draw several conclusions. First, I find that different types of neighborhood-level social diversity have different spatial patterns, and thus may require different supportive planning strategies. Second, an increase in density predicts an increase in social diversity, but only up to a point. Third, providing varied housing unit types is an important means for promoting diversity, but offering a variety of housing values and choice between renting and owning is also important. Fourth, older urban and pre–World War II suburban areas are the most socially diverse places in the Chicago area. This may be a strength of first-tier suburbs that deserves more attention. Finally, the diversity of any residential area is in constant flux. Planners interested in sustaining diversity should focus in particular on areas where it is in decline
Whatever Happened to “Urbanism”? A Comparison of Premodern, Modernist, and HOPE VI Morphology in Three American Cities
In the United States, urban form and design changed tremendously during the twentieth century. From the early twentieth century, a time when small-scale, highly diverse city blocks or what Douglas Rae called “urbanism” predominated, urban redevelopment came to be dominated by large-scale modernist superblocks, often promoted by federal policy. In the last two decades of the century, some urban designers argued for recapturing the physical qualities of the premodern city, while others argued that largescale, autonomous city areas were both inevitable and ideal. This study undertakes a morphological investigation of three “twice-cleared” urban sites in three American cities—Boston, Chicago, and New Orleans—to measure the changes occurring in eight morphological variables. The study examines three eras: 1910, when all three sites were dominated by small-scale buildings and city blocks, or premodern development; 1950, when all three sites had been redeveloped for Modernism-inspired public housing; and 2010, when all three sites had again been redeveloped under the federal, historicist-inspired HOPE VI public housing improvement program. The study found that HOPE VI was able to recover only some of the “urbanism” that Modernism eradicated in the mid 20th century. The study concludes that urban design is influenced by seemingly unalterable forces like technology and economy, but that purposeful design ideals can also have substantial effects
Sevtsuk et al. (2013)
Capturing Urban Intensity
While the methods for capturing the negative effects of density (e.g. congestion, friction) are widely understood and operationalized, capturing the positive effects of density (e.g. vibrancy, walkability) remain poorly explored. This research focuses on the latter, proposing a novel spatial analysis and mapping approach that can be used to capture the intensity of urban environments. We distinguish between urban density and intensity. Whereas density refers to the amount of people or elements of urban form (e.g. dwelling units, floor area) per unit area of land, intensity refers to the concentration of commercial and service activities on the ground floors along city streets. Bridging morphological mapping techniques with recent network analysis in GIS, ten metrics that capture specific attributes of the built environment influential to intensity are introduced and implemented using data collected from detailed field surveys within two comparative districts in the Bugis area of Singapore. A discussion of the efficacy of these metrics for urban design concludes the paper
Huang et al. (2007)
A global comparative analysis of urban form: Applying spatial metrics and remote sensing
Currently, debates over urban form have generally focused on the contrast between the “sprawl” often seen as typical of the United States and “compact” urban forms found in parts of Europe. Although these debates are presumed to have implications for developing worlds as well, systematic comparison of urban forms between developed and developing countries has been lacking. This paper utilized satellite images of 77 metropolitan areas in Asia, US, Europe, Latin America and Australia to calculate seven spatial metrics that capture five distinct dimensions of urban form. Comparison of the spatial metrics was firstly made between developed and developing countries, and then among world regions. A cluster analysis classifies the cities into groups in terms of these spatial metrics. The paper also explored the origins of differences in urban form through comparison with socio-economic developmental indicators and historical trajectories in urban development. The result clearly demonstrates that urban agglomerations of developing world are more compact and dense than their counterparts in either Europe or North America. Moreover, there
are also striking differences in urban form across regions
Schwartz (2010)
Urban form revisited—Selecting indicators for characterising European cities
Four out of five European citizens life in urban areas, and urban form – like the density or compactness of a city – influences daily life and is an important factor for both quality of life and environmental impact. Urban planning can influence urban form, but due to practicality needs to focus on a few indicators out of the numerous indicators which are available. The present study analyses urban form with respect to landscape metrics and population-related indicators for 231 European cities. Correlations and factor analysis identify the most relevant urban form indicators. Furthermore, a cluster analysis groups European cities according to their urban form. Significant differences between the clusters are presented. Results indicate that researchers, European administration and urban planners can select few indicators for analysing urban form due to strong relationships between single indicators. But they should be aware of differences in urban form when comparing European cities or working on planning policies for the whole of Europe
Van de Voorde et al. (2011)
Mapping form and function in urban areas: An approach based on urban metrics and continuous impervious surface data
Developing effective urban planning strategies and monitoring their spatial impact requires morphological and functional land-use maps showing the ongoing urban growth processes. Medium spatial resolution remote sensing images (e.g. Landsat, SPOT-HRV) are a useful data source for creating such maps as they have been regularly available since the early 1970s. While land use is linked to socio-economic activities and can therefore not be directly inferred from spectral information, previous studies have nevertheless
indicated that the spatial structure of the built-up environment is related to its function. In this paper, the urban morphology of Dublin, Ireland is represented by continuous impervious surface maps which are derived at the sub-pixel level from medium spatial resolution images of 1988 and 2001. The distribution and spatial configuration of impervious surface cover is quantified at the scale of predefined spatial entities by three urban metrics: the average impervious surface cover, shape characteristics of the frequency distribution and spatial variance. Morphology is related to land use by applying a supervised classification with the urban metrics as variables and generalised land-use categories as target classes. Combined with built-up densities derived from the impervious surface data, the classification produces morphological functional maps that clearly show the urban dynamics in Dublin between 1988 and 2001. An overall accuracy of 86% was achieved when a distinction was made between two broad classes representing employment related and residential land-use. These two classes are important in the context of calibrating urban growth models because they represent important drivers of urban land-use change.
Weng (2011)
Remote sensing of impervious surfaces in the urban areas: Requirements, methods, and trends
The knowledge of impervious surfaces, especially the magnitude, location, geometry, spatial pattern of
impervious surfaces and the perviousness–imperviousness ratio, is significant to a range of issues and themes in environmental science central to global environmental change and human–environment interactions. Impervious surface data is important for urban planning and environmental and resources management. Therefore, remote sensing of impervious surfaces in the urban areas has recently attracted unprecedented attention. In this paper, various digital remote sensing approaches to extract and estimate impervious surfaces will be examined. Discussions will focus on the mapping requirements of urban impervious surfaces. In particular, the impacts of spatial, geometric, spectral, and temporal resolutions on the estimation and mapping will be addressed, so will be the selection of an appropriate estimation method based on remotely sensed data characteristics. This literature review suggests that major approaches over the past decade include pixel-based (image classification, regression, etc.), sub-pixel based (linear spectral unmixing, imperviousness as the complement of vegetation fraction etc.), object-oriented algorithms, and artificial neural networks. Techniques, such as data/image fusion, expert systems, and contextual classification methods, have also been explored. The majority of research efforts have been made for mapping urban landscapes at various scales and on the spatial resolution requirements of such mapping. In contrast, there is less interest in spectral and geometric properties of impervious surfaces. More researches are also needed to better understand temporal resolution, change and evolution of impervious surfaces over time, and temporal requirements for urban mapping. It is suggested that the models, methods, and image analysis algorithms in urban remote sensing have been largely developed for the imagery of medium resolution (10–100 m). The advent of high spatial resolution satellite images, spaceborne hyperspectral images, and LiDAR data is stimulating new research idea, and is driving the future research trends with new models and algorithms.
Oliveira and Silva (2010)
How urban noise can be influenced by the urban
form
The noise propagation is influenced by the behavior of the sound trajectory. The temperatures, the wind, the type of soil are other elements that influence the noise propagation. But the mainly causer of trajectory alterations are the barriers or the urban obstacles. Therefore the study will allow monitoring the interaction of noise propagation effects in the studied urban forms. Using urban indicators and a noise prediction model is possible to associated noise categories to urban façades forms. The effects of noise in façades can be minimized in advance with the creation of different scenarios and foresee in a preliminary phase the most exposed façade to a higher noise level.
Inostroza et al. (2013)
Urban sprawl and fragmentation in Latin America: A dynamic quantification and characterization of spatial patterns
South America is one of the most urbanized continents in the world, where almost 84% of the total population lives in cities, more urbanized than North America (82%) and Europe (73%). Spatial dynamics, their structure, main features, land consumption rates, spatial arrangement, fragmentation degrees and comparability, remain mostly unknown for most Latin American cities. Using satellite imagery the main parameters of sprawl are quantified for 10 Latin American cities over a period of 20 years by monitoring growth patterns and identifying spatial metrics to characterize urban development and sprawling features measured with GIS tools. This quantification contributes to a better understanding of urban form in Latin America. A pervasive spatial expansion has been observed, where most of the studied cities are expanding at fast rates with falling densities trend. Although important differences in the rates of land consumption and densities exist, there is an underlying fragmentation trend towards increasing sprawl. These trends of spatial discontinuity may eventually be intensified by further economic development. Urban Sprawl/Latin America/GIS metrics/spatial development.
Song and Knaap (2004)
Measuring Urban Form
Is Portland Winning the War on Sprawl
Although many have written about urban sprawl, few have sought to measure it. In this article, we present several quantitative measures of urban form and compute these for neighborhoods of varying age in Washington County, the western portion of the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Our results suggest (1) neighborhoods in Washington County have increased in single-family dwelling unit density since the 1960s; (2) internal street connectivity and pedestrian access to commercial areas and bus stops have improved since the early 1990s; (3) external connectivity continues to decline; and (4) the mixing of land uses remains limited. We conclude that while several measures appear to be improving, Portland’s war on sprawl is not yet won.
Galster et al. (2001)
Wrestling Sprawl to the Ground: Defining and measuring an elusive concept
The literature on urban sprawl confuses causes, consequences, and conditions. This article presents a conceptual definition of sprawl based on eight distinct dimensions of land use patterns: density, continuity, concentration, clustering, centrality, nuclearity, mixed uses, and proximity. Sprawl is defined as a condition of land use that is represented by low values on one or more of these dimensions.

Each dimension is operationally defined and tested in 13 urbanized areas. Results for six dimensions are reported for each area, and an initial comparison of the extent of sprawl in the 13 areas is provided. The test confirms the utility of the approach and suggests that a clearer conceptual and operational definition can facilitate research on the causes and consequences of sprawl.
2000
2005
2010
2015
Song (2005)
Smart Growth and Urban Development Pattern: A Comparative Study
This article evaluates the efficacy of smart growth instruments in bringing forth compact urban development and neotraditional neighborhood design. The article first sets forth a set of quantitative measures that operationalize five dimensions of compact urban development and neotraditional neighborhood design: street network connectivity, density, land use mix, accessibility, and pedestrian walkability. Using these measures, three study areas are evaluated to determine how well their urban development patterns meet smart growth principles. These study areas are Portland, Oregon; Orange County, Florida; and Montgomery County, Maryland. Findings indicate that all three areas have quite similar development patterns. Findings also suggest that smart growth instruments have altered subdivision design, which is a traditional aspect of physical urban planning. However, smart growth plans have not branched out into nontraditional aspects of planning to encourage mixed land uses and to improve regional accessibility
Wheeler (2008)
The Evolution of Built Landscapes in Metropolitan Regions
This article analyzes the evolution of built landscapes in six U.S. metropolitan regions using historic maps, aerial photographs, and GIS software. The analysis identifies seven main historic patterns of urban form and nine types created in the 1980-2005 period. This recent period was characterized by a proliferation and fragmentation of built landscape types, rapid spatial expansion, and falling densities. These trends raise the question of whether the public sector should more proactively shape urban form. Rural sprawl accounts for much of the land now being urbanized, representing a new planning challenge. The Portland Urban Growth Boundary is found to be effective at limiting this type of development. The New Urbanist neighborhood form is still extremely rare
Clifton et al. (2008)
Quantitative analysis of urban form: a multidisciplinary review
This paper characterizes and reviews multidisciplinary approaches to urban form. It begins by classifying quantitative approaches to analyzing urban form into five classes: landscape ecology, economic structure, surface transportation, community design, and urban design. It then reviews quantitative measures in each class. Based on the review, four conclusions are drawn. First, over the last two decades substantial progress has been made in the ability to measure and analyze spatial patterns that help characterize urban form. Second, at multiples scales and for a variety of reasons, there are advantages to development that is mixed and compact. Third, normative principles and policies for addressing urban form need to be crafted at multiple scales and carefully designed to address the disparate issues that arise at each scale. Fourth, with so many disparate measures now used to operationalize the same constructs, it would advance urban form research to have some standardization in operational definitions and measurement protocols.
Metha (2007)
Lively Streets Determining Environmental Characteristics to Support Social Behavior
Increasingly, scholars suggest thinking of the street as a social space, rather than just a channel for movement. Studies that address the relationships between social behavior and environmental quality of the street tend to separate the study of physical features from land uses and hence do not address the interrelationships between behavioral patterns and physical features of the street and its sociability. This article is an empirical examination of behavioral responses of people to the environmental quality of neighborhood commercial streets. Structured and semistructured observations are used to study stationary, lingering, and social activities on three neighborhood commercial streets. Eleven land use and physical characteristics of buildings and the street are identified based on the literature review and extensive observations. These are measured and tested to understand which characteristics support stationary, lingering, and social activities. The findings reveal that people are equally concerned with the social, land use, and physical aspects of the street. Seating provided by businesses, seating provided by the public authorities, businesses that are community places, personalized street fronts, and sidewalk width particularly contribute to stationary and social activities on neighborhood commercial streets
Talen (2003)
Measuring Urbanism: Issues in Smart Growth Research
This paper explores the measurement issues that arise in conducting smart growth research. Such research is largely dependent on the quantitative measurement of urban and suburban phenomena, but this measurement varies widely. Data sources, geographic scales, aggregation rules, and spatial resolution can all vary, and all have a significant effect on research outcomes. The paper presents an overview of the issues involved in urban measurement, exploring three interrelated aspects of urban study-the measurement, evaluation, and representation of urban form. The paper presents a framework of the conceptual differences and practical implications. This serves as background to a call for new measurement approaches that would more appropriately reflect the material aspects of cities.
Talen and Koschinsky (2011)
Is subsidized housing in sustainable neighborhoods? Evidence from Chicago
This article explores the connection between subsidized housing and sustainable urban form. Given the general disconnect between new market-rate housing in sustainable, walkable neighborhoods and affordable housing opportunities, we expect affordable housing to be located in less sustainable locations in terms of proximity to amenities, walkability, street connectivity, density, and diversity of urban form. A rich set of parcel and planning data for the city of Chicago was used to correlate sustainability indicators with the locations of both project- and tenant-based affordable housing programs. Difference-in-means tests and other descriptive statistical analysis suggest that project-based locations (with the exception of Chicago Housing Authority family units) actually score above average, especially in terms of accessibility and walkability, albeit it at the cost of concentrated poverty, racial segregation, and crime. In contrast, vouchers are located in less sustainable locations when it comes to accessibility and walkability, although they are in neighborhoods with more diversity and less poverty – and, at lower voucher concentrations, with less segregation and crime – than project units.
Talen (2005)
Evaluating good urban form in an inner-city neighborhood: An empirical application
There is now widespread agreement that the American city has neglected its human-scaled dimension. In response to this, certain ideas about what constitutes "good urban form" have now become fairly established. This paper applies these criteria to the evaluation of physical urban form in an inner-city neighborhood. Eight variables are measured and overlaid using GIS to objectively evaluate physical conditions in response to long-term "urban livability" goals. The rationale for this approach is that the physical urban form qualities of poor inner-city neighborhoods often have intrinsic value that may be overlooked. This has come to light in the wake of redevelopment activity in the neighborhood analyzed in the case study presented here, in which suburban-type development has been encouraged. While this strategy has likely been helpful in attracting and/or retaining middle-class families to the area, it could be argued that a companion strategy is needed to strengthen what remains of the existing qualities of "good urban form " a neighborhood like this still possesses. The ultimate goal would be the maintenance and preservation of representative areas of the neighborhood - areas that still retain those traditional qualities, despite suburbanizing or disinvestment pressure
Song and Quercia (2008)
How are neighbourhood design features valued across different neighbourhood types?
In this paper, we examine whether implicit prices of neighbourhood design features in the housing market vary significantly across traditional, neo-traditional, and conventional suburban neighbourhood types. The set of neighbourhood design features we examine here include neighbourhood development density, street network connectivity, pedestrian access to transit and commercial stores, and land use mixture. Using data from Washington County, Oregon, we first use statistical procedures to identify distinct neighbourhood types. We then employ hedonic price analyses and a series of spatial Chow tests to obtain implicit prices of design attributes for houses in each neighbourhood type. We find that traditional design features such as higher street network connectivity and better pedestrian access to transit and commercial stores are valued more in the traditional and neo-traditional neighbourhoods, and that conventional neighbourhood features such as lower housing density and higher degree of homogeneous land uses are valued more in the suburban neighbourhoods.
Qian (2011)
Shaping Urban Form without Zoning: Investigating Three Neighbourhoods in Houston
Houston is the only major city in North America without zoning. The growth of Houston illustrates a traditional free market philosophy in which zoning is seen as a violation to private property rights. This paper examines how the lack of zoning has an impact on land use and urban form in Houston. It uses cluster analysis integrating socioeconomic factors to select three case study neighbourhoods, and then applies geographical information systems to analyse their urban form spatial characteristics. The study investigates the change of urban form in three neighbourhoods over two decades. The analysis is accompanied by a qualitative investigation of the neighbourhoods, which attempts to address why and how those quantified characteristics of urban form developed over the decades. The paper concludes by discussing the similarity and diversity of land-use patterns and the reasons, by outlining policy implications from the findings on urban form, and by contributing to the debate over urban form and government intervention in better land-use patterns.
Song and Knaap (2004)
Measuring Urban Form
Is Portland Winning the War on Sprawl
Although many have written about urban sprawl, few have sought to measure it. In this article, we present several quantitative measures of urban form and compute these for neighborhoods of varying age in Washington County, the western portion of the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Our results suggest (1) neighborhoods in Washington County have increased in single-family dwelling unit density since the 1960s; (2) internal street connectivity and pedestrian access to commercial areas and bus stops have improved since the early 1990s; (3) external connectivity continues to decline; and (4) the mixing of land uses remains limited. We conclude that while several measures appear to be improving, Portland’s war on sprawl is not yet won.
Song and Knaap (2003)
New urbanism and housing values: a disaggregate assessment
In this paper, we attempt a formal analysis of the virtues of new urbanism, a movement hailed as the most significant movement in urban planning and architecture in this century. We proceed using the tools of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to develop quantitative measures of urban form. We then incorporate those measures in a hedonic price analysis. We find that our measures of urban form capture meaningful differences in the characters of urban neighborhoods that could well have direct impacts on the utility of urban residents. Further, we find that such differences are capitalized into residential property values. The results imply that some but not all of the design features of new urbanism provide benefits for which urban residents are willing to pay
Song and Knaap (2007)
Quantitative classification of neighborhoods: the neighborhoods of new single-family homes in the Portland Metropolitan Area
Altho.
1. Measurements of Urban Forms and effects on Property Values
Knaap et al. (2007)
Quantitative classification of neighborhoods: the neighborhoods of new single-family homes in the Portland Metropolitan Area
Altho.
2. Smart Growth Index
Allen (2001)
INDEX: software for community indicators

Book Chapter in Brail and Klostermann (Eds), Planning Supporting Systems: Integrating Geographic Information Systems, Models, and Visualization Tools, ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, 2001, pp. 229–261

3. LEED - Neighborhood Development
Metha (2007)
Determining Environmental Characteristics to Support Social Behavior
Increasingly, scholars suggest thinking of the street as a social space, rather than just a channel for movement. Studies that address the relationships between social behavior and environmental quality of the street tend to separate the study of physical features from land uses and hence do not address the interrelationships between behavioral patterns and physical features of the street and its sociability. This article is an empirical examination of behavioral responses of people to the environmental quality of neighborhood commercial streets. Structured and semistructured observations are used to study stationary, lingering, and social activities on three neighborhood commercial streets. Eleven land use and physical characteristics of buildings and the street are identified based on the literature review and extensive observations. These are measured and tested to understand which characteristics support stationary, lingering, and social activities. The findings reveal that people are equally concerned with the social, land use, and physical aspects of the street. Seating provided by businesses, seating provided by the public authorities, businesses that are community places, personalized street fronts, and sidewalk width particularly contribute to stationary and social activities on neighborhood commercial streets
4. Measurements from Observation
5. Measurements from Environmental Audit Methodologies
Pikora et al. (2002)
Developing a reliable audit instrument to measure the physical environment
for physical activity
Altho.
Mouldon and Lee. (2003)
Walking and biking: an evaluation of environmental audit instruments
Altho.
Clifton et al. (2007)
The development and testing of an audit for the pedestrian environment
Altho.
6. Measurements from Physical Features
Giles-Corti and Donovan (2002)
The relative influence of individual, social and physical environment determinants of physical activity
Altho.
7. Measurements from Perceptions
Kitamura et al. (1997)
A micro-analysis of land use and travel in five
neighbourhoods in the San Francisco Bay Area
Altho.
Clifton et al. (2007)
The development and testing of an audit for the pedestrian environment
Altho.
Ewing et al. (2005)
Turning highways into main streets: two innovations in planning methodology
Altho.
Ewing et al. (2006)
Identifying and measuring urban design qualities related to walkability
Altho.
Nelessen (1994)
Visions for a new American dream: process, principles, and an ordinance to plan and design small communities
Altho.
Malizia and Exline (2000)
Consumer preferences for residential alternatives
Altho.
764
273
82
68
13
31
62
15
0
46
49
14
4
3
93
160
38
166
14
0
Bramley et al. (2009)
Social sustainability and urban form: evidence from five British cities
Planning and urban policies emphasise `sustainability', but claims that `compact cities' are more socially sustainable and acceptable have been controversial and subject to limited empirical testing. After a brief review of the concepts and debate, we set out new empirical evidence based on household surveys linked to neighbourhood physical, map-based, and sociodemographic data for five British cities. Statistical models are developed to account for systematic variations in the main social sustainability outcomes. The results are considered both in terms of the role of particular urban form and locational measures, but also in terms of the broader patterns of effects of packages of measures. Outcomes relating to residential satisfaction, stability, neighbourhood environment, and safety are all shown to be lower in higher density/central places, but it is also shown that a good deal of this apparent effect is due to social and demographic factors. Interaction with neighbours and participation in groups is better at medium densities, controlling for other factors, while use of local services is, as expected, greater in denser, more central locations. These findings indicate that compact cities are not `win ^ win' on all dimensions of sustainability but, rather, that reductions in transport emissions will have to be weighed against social criteria. In addition, urban form has different aspects, which have differing social effects, and this knowledge could inform the future design of `smarter' urban environments.
64
Talen (1999)
Sense of community and neighborhood form: an assessment of the social doctrine of new urbanism
New urbanism, an umbrella term which encompasses 'neotraditional development' as well as 'traditional neighbourhood design', lives by an unswerving belief in the ability of the built environment to create a 'sense of community'. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the social doctrine of new urbanism can be successfully supported or at least integrated with the social science literature which deals with the question of community formation. Towards this goal, the paper first delineates the social doctrine of new urbanism, and then discusses the conceptual frameworks and empirical findings that either support or contradict the idea that a sense of community will follow the physical form of cities and neighbourhoods generally and new urbanist principles specifically. After laying this groundwork, the remainder of the paper presents an assessment of whether a reconciliation between research and doctrine may be possible, in light of various apparent contradictions between the social claims of new urbanists and the results of research by social scientists. It is concluded that new urbanists need to clarify the meaning of sense of community as it pertains to physical design. Further, it is maintained that while some research supports the idea that resident interaction and sense of community are related to environmental factors, the effectuation of this goal is usually only achieved via some intermediate variable. This latter point leaves open the question of whether any number of other design creeds could produce the same result via a different design philosophy. The need for further research is stressed; this should be focused on investigating the issue more directly
372
Dave (2011)
Neighborhood density and social sustainability in cities of developing countries
Within the concept of sustainable development, there is very little known about social impacts and levels of acceptability of compact urban form in the context of cities of developing countries. Social sustainability of these cities in developing countries might have a huge impact on the overall global sustainability, considering their large population size and high economic growth. This paper provides new empirical evidence from 11 case study neighbourhoods of different densities and built forms within the Mumbai Metropolitan Region to evaluate the relationship between social sustainability and urban densities. In doing so, impacts of both physical and perceived density on selected aspects of social sustainability in the context of Mumbai were examined. The findings suggest that, on social aspects of sustainability, higher household density and population density have no negative impacts. However, importantly, most of the negative associations of density were related to the perceptions of density, and therefore the built form, layout, design and amount of mix of uses as well as socio-demographic variables such as family income and location were found to have an important role in achieving social sustainability
20
LEED for Neighborhood Development (2009)
United States Green Building Council
Congress for New Urbanism
Natural Resources Defense Council
LEED for Neighborhood Development (2009)
United States Green Building Council
Congress for New Urbanism
Natural Resources Defense Council
Song and Knaap (2003)
New urbanism and housing values: a disaggregate assessment
In this paper, we attempt a formal analysis of the virtues of new urbanism, a movement hailed as the most significant movement in urban planning and architecture in this century. We proceed using the tools of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to develop quantitative measures of urban form. We then incorporate those measures in a hedonic price analysis. We find that our measures of urban form capture meaningful differences in the characters of urban neighborhoods that could well have direct impacts on the utility of urban residents. Further, we find that such differences are capitalized into residential property values. The results imply that some but not all of the design features of new urbanism provide benefits for which urban residents are willing to pay
229
Talen et al. (2013)
LEED-ND as an urban metric
The LEED rating system for neighborhood development (LEED-ND) was developed in an effort to extend the certification of sustainability beyond green buildings. It has been most often used to certify a LEED-ND “project” in the same way that LEED certifies individual buildings. However, to date very few projects have been LEED-ND certified due to the significant costs in money, time and expertise involved in certifying individual projects. This paper argues that identifying LEED-ND eligible locations is more efficient at the scale of jurisdictions rather than individual projects. By identifying LEED-ND-ready parcels cities can incentivize more sustainable development in these locations and make it much more affordable for developers to utilize LEED-ND.
The paper presents a methodology that identifies which parcels are compliant with the most important criterion in the LEED-ND rating system: the “Smart Location and Linkage” or SLL prerequisite. Applying the method to the City of Phoenix, just over 9000 acres in the city are found to be LEED-ND eligible lands, without constraints. This represents 26% of the candidate acreage (all vacant or redevelopable land), a somewhat higher percentage than expected. The paper further finds that LEED-ND eligible parcels in Phoenix are not approximated well by Walk Scores and that they tend to be located in areas with lower densities and lower market strength, as well as in areas with a higher proportion of renter-occupied units, including subsidized housing
8
Ewing et al. (2003)
Measuring Sprawl and Its Transportation Impacts
Across the United States, urban sprawl, its impacts, and appropriate containment policies have become the most hotly debated issues in urban planning. Today's debates have no anchoring definition of sprawl, which has contributed to their unfocused, dogmatic quality. Efforts to measure sprawl and test for relationships between sprawl and transportation outcomes are described. This is the first use of the newly minted Rutgers-Cornell sprawl indicators. Sprawl is operationalized by combining many variables into a few factors representing density, land use mix, degree of centering, and street accessibility. This consolidation of variables is accomplished with principal component analysis. These factors are then related to vehicle ownership, commute mode choice, commute time, vehicle miles traveled per capita, traffic delay per capita, traffic fatalities per capita, and 8-h ozone level. These associations are made with multiple regression analysis. For most travel and transportation outcomes, sprawling regions perform less well than compact ones. The exceptions are average commute time and annual traffic delay per capita, which do not clearly favor compactness over sprawl. The main limitation of this study has to do with the data it uses. By necessity, the study uses highly aggregate data from a variety of sources that are not always consistent as to the area under study and time period. They are simply the best data available from national sources with sufficient breadth to provide a panoramic view of sprawl in the United States. Results will have to be validated through follow-up work of a more focused nature.
701
Tsai (2005)
Quantifying Urban Form: Compactness versus 'Sprawl'
This paper develops a set of quantitative variables to characterise urban forms at the metropolitan level and, in particular, to distinguish compactness from 'sprawl'. It first reviews and analyses past research on the definitions of urban form, compactness and sprawl, and corresponding quantitative variables. Four quantitative variables are developed to measure four dimensions of urban form at the metropolitan level: metropolitan size, activity intensity, the degree that activities are evenly distributed, and the extent that high-density sub-areas are clustered. Through a series of simulation analyses, the global Moran coefficient, which characterises the fourth dimension, distinguishes compactness from sprawl. It is high, intermediate and close to zero for monocentric, polycentric and decentralised sprawling forms respectively. In addition, the more there is more local sprawl, composed of discontinuity and strip development, the lower is the Moran coefficient.
238
Density
Continuity
Concentration
Clustering
Centrality
Nuclearity
Mixed Uses
Proximity
Street Design
Density
Land Use Mix
Accesibility
Pedestrian Access
housing units / one-mile square
Developed:
>10 houses or >50 employees / one-mile square
High Density Grids:
1. > 2 standard deviations of the mean of density in a 100 sample of one-mile squares
2. coefficient of variation (standard deviation divided by the mean)
3. Delta index: share of land use to achieve a uniform distribution (Massey and Denton 1988)
Average for all one-mile squares of the standard deviations of the density of a particular land use among the four squares of each one-mile grid with developable land, standardized by the average density across m-scale grids
Center of CBD defined as address of city hall
1. average distance of a land use from the CBD. Inverse of the average of the sum of the distance from the center of the CBD grid to the center of each one-mile square weighted by the number of observations of the land use in the grid, with the resulting average standardized by the square root of the area of the UA. Lower values reflect more sprawl
2. A centralization index that measures how rapidly a given land use accumulates relative to land area as one moves progressively outward in concentric rings from the CBD (Masey and Denton 1988)
Massey and Denton. (1988)
The Dimensions of Residential Segregation
This paper conceives of residential segregation as a multidimensional phenomenon varying along five distinct axes of measurement: evenness, exposure, concentration, centralization, and clustering. Twenty indices of segregation are surveyed and related conceptually to one of the five dimensions. Using data from a large set of U.S. metropolitan areas, the indices are intercorrelated and factor analyzed. Orthogonal and oblique rotations produce pattern matrices consistent with the postulated dimensional structure. Based on the factor analyses and other information, one index was chosen to represent each of the five dimensions, and these selections were confirmed with a principal components analysis. The paper recommends adopting these indices as standard indicators in future studies of segregation.
1835
Identification of nodes or nuclei by means of the following steps:
1. Identify the highest density per one-mile square grid in the USA
2. Add all adjacent grids that are within one standard deviation of the density of this highest-density grid to the node
3. Recalculate the density of the newly combined highest-density nucleus c
4. Consider all the other one-mile square grids in the UA that are within one standard deviation of the recalculated density as separate nuclei, provided that they are nos immediately adjacent to an existing nucleus
5. Add any grids adjacent to any nucleus identified in #4. that are within one standard deviation of the recalculated highest-density nucleus c to the nucleus
Measurements: 1. The numbers of nodes, and 2. The number of observations in the central nucleus as a percentage of the number of observations in all of the nuclei
Exposure Index (Masey and Denton 1988)
Average density of a particular land use in another land use
Compute weighted average distance in the UA between a given land use i and all observation of another use j. We sequentially take each distance between a centroid of a given one-mile square area m and the centroid of another one-mile square area k and weight it by the proportion of the land use of interest j in the UA represented by the target area k.This is done using grid area m’s centroid as the origin and computing the weighted distance to every other area’s centroid until all of the weighted distances are summed to get the average.4 This procedure is then repeated for all one-mile-square areas as the origin point of distances; all these observations are weighted by the proportion of the
UA’s share of land use i represented in grid area m.

Hyungun et al. (2015)
Operationalizing Jane Jacobs's Urban Design Theory: Empirical Verification from the Great City of Seoul, Korea
Jane Jacobs’s The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) had an enormous influence on urban design theories and practices. This study aims to operationalize Jacobs’s conditions for a vital urban life. These are (1) mixed use, (2) small blocks, (3) aged buildings, and (4) a sufficient concentration of buildings. Jacobs suggested that a vital urban life could be sustained by an urban realm that promotes pedestrian activity for various purposes at various times. Employing multilevel binomial models, we empirically verified that Jacobs’s conditions for urban diversity play a significant role with regard to pedestrian activity
0
King (2013)
Jane Jacobs and ‘The Need for Aged Buildings’: Neighbourhood Historical Development Pace and Community Social Relations
Jacobs argued that grand planning schemes intending to redevelop large swaths of a city according to a central theoretical framework fail because planners do not understand that healthy cities are organic, spontaneous, messy, complex systems that result from evolutionary processes. She argued that a gradual pace of redevelopment would facilitate maintenance of existing interpersonal ties. This paper operationalises the concept of pace of development within a cross-sectional framework as the ‘age diversity of housing’. Analysis of a population-based multilevel community survey of Chicago linked with census housing data predicts individual perceptions of neighbourhood social relations (cohesion, control, intergenerational closure and reciprocal exchange). A gradual pace of redevelopment resulting in historical diversity of housing significantly predicts social relations, lending support to Jacobs’s claims.
6
Talen (2010)
The Context of Diversity: A Study of Six Chicago Neighbourhoods
Depending on how diversity is defined, every city has at least some neighbourhoods that are diverse, despite the enduring reality that American cities tend to be highly segregated. This paper investigates six socially diverse neighbourhoods in Chicago from the perspective of the residents who live there. The specific focus is on the interaction between residents and physical form, spatial pattern, and the location and function of civic institutions. Six neighbourhoods in Cook County were selected that are simultaneously diverse along four dimensions: age, income, family type and race/ ethnicity. From February to June 2006, tape-recorded interviews were conducted of 85 residents in the six neighbourhoods identified as being highly diverse on multiple dimensions. Residents were surveyed about their familiarity with, and opinions about, social diversity, in addition to questions designed to probe their feelings about the importance of place and neighbourhood context.
4
Boyko & Cooper (2011)
Clarifying and re-conceptualising density
As a spatial concept, density is a useful tool in predicting and controlling land use. However, policymakers, practitioners, academics and citizens are often uncertain about how density, and especially higher densities, can be best utilised to create and nurture the design of urban environments. Barriers related to definitions, calculations, concepts and correlations with relevant issues prevent people from understanding density beyond a simple ratio of units to area. More needs to be done to show that density plays a key role in planning, architecture and urban design, and that discussions of density cannot be done in isolation of a whole host issues found in the built and natural environment. To that end, this paper aims to clarify some of the issues surrounding density, particularly about available definitions, calculating terms, the advantages and disadvantages of increasing densities in cities and uncovering relationships between density and issues pertinent to the design of urban environments. With these relationships in mind, a new way of visualising density is then offered—through a taxonomy of density—that categorises density into its component parts, allowing scholars, policymakers and practitioners to understand what aspects of density have been examined and what gaps are still present. Finally, a re-conceptualisation of density is presented, illustrating that density is more than a quantitative calculation that exists on its own; rather, for density to be considered as an integral part of the urban environment, both ‘hard’ (i.e., quantitative) and ‘soft’ (i.e., qualitative, contextual) elements must be included.
31
Weingaertner et al. (2011)
Exploring Social Sustainability: Learning from Perspectives on Urban Development and Companies and Products
There is a fragmented approach to social sustainability in the literature, and this paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the meanings and interpretations of that concept while reviewing and discussing the social dimension of sustainability from the perspectives of two fields: urban development as well as companies and products. The analysis identifies commonalities and differences in the understanding of the conceptualization of social sustainability and helps to identify core aspects that cross disciplinary boundaries. The paper shows that compiling a list of comprehensive aspects that is representative of social sustainability is not straightforward, as interpretations are context dependant and aspects are often closely interconnected. Differences often occur because of variations in scoping and context, or whether or not a life cycle perspective is used. Nonetheless, there seems to be an underlying common understanding of what social sustainability is, and a set of key themes (social capital, human capital and well-being) is suggested as an alternative to put more specific measures and indicators in perspective. However, context-specific information is still necessary in practical applications. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment..
24
Sharifi et al. (2013)
Changes in the traditional urban form and the social sustainability of contemporary cities: A case study of Iranian cities
This article discusses how traditional urban patterns can inspire planners to create integrated urban environments which are more sustainable socially. Our focus is on the Iranian cities. First we describe the main elements of traditional Iranian cities, their qualities, and the way they have contributed to the social sustainability of communities. Later, we explain the current situations and the way these elements have lost their function and their integrity is disrupted. We conclude the article by emphasizing that planners should consider the evolution of the city in the course of time and lessons learned from the past should be considered at the time of development or redevelopment. Taking account of the inherent values of traditional urban forms will be a complement to the modern planning and design techniques and will facilitate creation of communities which are more sustainable socially.
17
Sivam et al. (2012)
Stakeholders’ perception of residential density: a case study of Adelaide, Australia
‘Residential density’ is a frequently used concept often applied in planning practice. The notion of density policy is well understood; however, it is perceived, and by extension applied, differently across the world. Despite the increased focus and awareness of housing density, there appears to be little coherence or consensus within the planning and development sector, political circles and the general community about what it is, how it should be applied, and whether or not it is a positive or negative feature. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify stakeholders’ understanding of density. In order to achieve this, a case study approach was adopted in order to know the various stakeholders’ awareness and comprehension of density, and to that end, Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, was selected as a case study city for this purpose. The research demonstrated that the stakeholders’ perception of density is strongly influenced by the built form of residential areas (for example, public image) rather than that of measurement or scale, even though there is no direct relationship between built form and density.
2
Pendall (2003)
Does density exacerbate income segregation? Evidence from US metropolitan areas, 1980 to 2000
A fundamental goal of many smart growth efforts is to promote greater socioeconomic equity through more compact development. In this article, we point out that the connection between the built environment and socioeconomic outcomes may be more complex than it is generally portrayed to be, particularly in light of recent trends in urban and regional development.

Through an empirical analysis involving two measures of income segregation, dissimilarity and isolation, in a national data set of metropolitan areas from 1980 to 2000, we illustrate that the relationship between density and income segregation follows a quadratic function, first rising, then falling, as densities increase. Moreover, changes in density—whether increases or decreases—always increased segregation. These findings suggest that, if greater socioeconomic equity is a goal, smart growth programs need to pay as much attention to market forces and the underlying political landscape as they do to the built environment.
62
Talen (2006)
Design That Enables Diversity: The Complications of a Planning Ideal
This article reviews the literature on place diversity and the quest to use design to promote social and economic mix in human settlements. The article fits together a large literature on the subject of the interrelationship between diversity and place and explores how diversity could be enabled within the context of the city-planning profession. It argues that the linkage between city planning—defined in its traditional sense as a profession concerned with the design of cities—and place diversity is understudied. Four distinct though interrelated theoretical bases for diversity are discussed: place vitality, economic health, social equity, and sustainability. The article argues that the promotion of place diversity requires focused effort on the part of planners, and that design-based strategies are an appropriate part of that effort.
80
Talen (2005)
Land Use Zoning and Human Diversity: Exploring the Connection
City planners are rallying against social and economic segregation by enacting regulatory changes, particularly zoning reform. Land use zoning, many argue, is one of the most potent tools planners have to enact change in human settlement patterns, and the goal of that change is often to foster greater levels of socioeconomic and land use diversity. This paper presents a method for connecting land use zoning and spatial patterns of diversity explicitly. It addresses the question of whether, and in what ways, zoning and human diversity are interrelated. Two fundamental questions arise in attempting to use zoning to foster greater diversity: What is the current relationship between human diversity and zoning, and second, how can zoning, given local experience, be changed to effectuate more diversity. To answer these questions, patterns of zoning by parcel and patterns of socioeconomic diversity were evaluated for the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana, Ill. A form of the Simpson Diversity Index was used to measure socioeconomic and zoning diversity by census block group. The results showed an association between diverse residential zoning and income diversity, but other measures of social diversity were not strongly correlated
38
Rey and Folch (2011)
Impact of spatial effects on income segregation indices
Residential segregation is an inherently spatial phenomenon as it measures the separation of different types of people within a region. Whether measured with an explicitly spatial index, or a classic aspatial index, a region’s underlying spatial properties could manifest themselves in the magnitude of measured segregation. In this paper we implement a Monte Carlo simulation approach to investigate the properties of four segregation indices in regions built with specific spatial properties. This approach allows us to control the experiment in ways that empirical data do not. In general we confirm the expected results for the indices under various spatial properties, but some unexpected results emerge. Both the Dissimilarity Index and Neighborhood Sorting Index are sensitive to region size, but their spatial counterparts, the Adjusted Dissimilarity Index and Generalized Neighborhood Sorting Index, are generally immune to this problem. The paper also lends weight to concerns about the downward pressure on measured segregation when multiple neighborhoods are grouped into a single census tract. Finally, we discuss concerns about the way space is incorporated into segregation indices since the expected value of the spatial indices tested is lower than their aspatial counterparts.
6
Qualitative Methods
Quantitative Studies
Sharifi et al. (2013)
Changes in the traditional urban form and the social sustainability of contemporary cities: A case study of Iranian cities
This article discusses how traditional urban patterns can inspire planners to create integrated urban environments which are more sustainable socially. Our focus is on the Iranian cities. First we describe the main elements of traditional Iranian cities, their qualities, and the way they have contributed to the social sustainability of communities. Later, we explain the current situations and the way these elements have lost their function and their integrity is disrupted. We conclude the article by emphasizing that planners should consider the evolution of the city in the course of time and lessons learned from the past should be considered at the time of development or redevelopment. Taking account of the inherent values of traditional urban forms will be a complement to the modern planning and design techniques and will facilitate creation of communities which are more sustainable socially.
17
Dave (2011)
Neighborhood density and social sustainability in cities of developing countries
Within the concept of sustainable development, there is very little known about social impacts and levels of acceptability of compact urban form in the context of cities of developing countries. Social sustainability of these cities in developing countries might have a huge impact on the overall global sustainability, considering their large population size and high economic growth. This paper provides new empirical evidence from 11 case study neighbourhoods of different densities and built forms within the Mumbai Metropolitan Region to evaluate the relationship between social sustainability and urban densities. In doing so, impacts of both physical and perceived density on selected aspects of social sustainability in the context of Mumbai were examined. The findings suggest that, on social aspects of sustainability, higher household density and population density have no negative impacts. However, importantly, most of the negative associations of density were related to the perceptions of density, and therefore the built form, layout, design and amount of mix of uses as well as socio-demographic variables such as family income and location were found to have an important role in achieving social sustainability
20
Deductive
Survey
Bramley et al. (2009)
Social sustainability and urban form: evidence from five British cities
Planning and urban policies emphasise `sustainability', but claims that `compact cities' are more socially sustainable and acceptable have been controversial and subject to limited empirical testing. After a brief review of the concepts and debate, we set out new empirical evidence based on household surveys linked to neighbourhood physical, map-based, and sociodemographic data for five British cities. Statistical models are developed to account for systematic variations in the main social sustainability outcomes. The results are considered both in terms of the role of particular urban form and locational measures, but also in terms of the broader patterns of effects of packages of measures. Outcomes relating to residential satisfaction, stability, neighbourhood environment, and safety are all shown to be lower in higher density/central places, but it is also shown that a good deal of this apparent effect is due to social and demographic factors. Interaction with neighbours and participation in groups is better at medium densities, controlling for other factors, while use of local services is, as expected, greater in denser, more central locations. These findings indicate that compact cities are not `win ^ win' on all dimensions of sustainability but, rather, that reductions in transport emissions will have to be weighed against social criteria. In addition, urban form has different aspects, which have differing social effects, and this knowledge could inform the future design of `smarter' urban environments.
64
Talen (1999)
Sense of community and neighborhood form: an assessment of the social doctrine of new urbanism
New urbanism, an umbrella term which encompasses 'neotraditional development' as well as 'traditional neighbourhood design', lives by an unswerving belief in the ability of the built environment to create a 'sense of community'. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the social doctrine of new urbanism can be successfully supported or at least integrated with the social science literature which deals with the question of community formation. Towards this goal, the paper first delineates the social doctrine of new urbanism, and then discusses the conceptual frameworks and empirical findings that either support or contradict the idea that a sense of community will follow the physical form of cities and neighbourhoods generally and new urbanist principles specifically. After laying this groundwork, the remainder of the paper presents an assessment of whether a reconciliation between research and doctrine may be possible, in light of various apparent contradictions between the social claims of new urbanists and the results of research by social scientists. It is concluded that new urbanists need to clarify the meaning of sense of community as it pertains to physical design. Further, it is maintained that while some research supports the idea that resident interaction and sense of community are related to environmental factors, the effectuation of this goal is usually only achieved via some intermediate variable. This latter point leaves open the question of whether any number of other design creeds could produce the same result via a different design philosophy. The need for further research is stressed; this should be focused on investigating the issue more directly
372
Jacobs (1961)
The Death and Life of Great American Cities
12561
Ethnography
Choguill (2008)
Developing sustainable neighbourhoods
Sustainability has become an increasingly important element to be considered in the planning of urban areas. Although it is central in the consideration of cities, for some reason it has received less attention in the development of neighbourhoods. Yet cities cannot be considered sustainable if their component parts, such as neighbourhoods, do not meet sustainability criteria. Surprisingly, it is perfectly feasible to include sustainability elements in neighbourhood consideration. If one follows the development of neighbourhood theory from Howard and Perry through to more recent contributions, it can be seen that the ideas of sustainability, although not by that name, are central to these various contributions. Neighbourhood sustainability criteria mirror those used in sustainability analysis for higher level cities and towns, including consideration of the economic, the social, the technical and the environmental.

Unfortunately, the application of these theoretical concepts to the neighbourhoods of modern Arab cities, such as Riyadh, leads to disappointing results. In the case of Riyadh, this appears to be due to a number of factors: the rapid urbanization, the relative scarcity of public shared facilities such as schools and green areas, and the adaptations that have been made to the original plan devised for the city. Interestingly, it is in the newer, planned neighbourhoods on the periphery of the city that these sustainability criteria might be most closely met. This suggests that success in neighbourhood sustainability may well be as dependent upon marketing as on urban planning
79
Choguill (2008)
Developing sustainable neighbourhoods
Sustainability has become an increasingly important element to be considered in the planning of urban areas. Although it is central in the consideration of cities, for some reason it has received less attention in the development of neighbourhoods. Yet cities cannot be considered sustainable if their component parts, such as neighbourhoods, do not meet sustainability criteria. Surprisingly, it is perfectly feasible to include sustainability elements in neighbourhood consideration. If one follows the development of neighbourhood theory from Howard and Perry through to more recent contributions, it can be seen that the ideas of sustainability, although not by that name, are central to these various contributions. Neighbourhood sustainability criteria mirror those used in sustainability analysis for higher level cities and towns, including consideration of the economic, the social, the technical and the environmental.

Unfortunately, the application of these theoretical concepts to the neighbourhoods of modern Arab cities, such as Riyadh, leads to disappointing results. In the case of Riyadh, this appears to be due to a number of factors: the rapid urbanization, the relative scarcity of public shared facilities such as schools and green areas, and the adaptations that have been made to the original plan devised for the city. Interestingly, it is in the newer, planned neighbourhoods on the periphery of the city that these sustainability criteria might be most closely met. This suggests that success in neighbourhood sustainability may well be as dependent upon marketing as on urban planning
79
Colantonio (2009)
Urban social sustainability themes and assessment methods
In recent years the social dimension (or ‘social sustainability’) has gained increased recognition as a fundamental component of sustainable development. This paper explores the notion of social sustainability and its main assessment methods, together with the pioneering social sustainability framework devised by the City of Vancouver, Canada. The paper illustrates how there is no consensus on the definition of social sustainability because this concept is currently being approached from diverging study perspectives and discipline-specific criteria, making a generalised definition difficult to achieve. In addition, traditional ‘hard’ social sustainability themes such as employment and poverty alleviation are increasingly being complemented or replaced by emerging ‘soft’ and less measurable concepts such as happiness, social mixing and sense of place. Within this context, the paper looks at how Vancouver's local authorities have approached urban social sustainability and discusses the importance of the selection of sustainability principles, objectives, themes, assessment techniques and indicators from a social perspective.
17
Sivam et al. (2012)
Stakeholders’ perception of residential density: a case study of Adelaide, Australia
‘Residential density’ is a frequently used concept often applied in planning practice. The notion of density policy is well understood; however, it is perceived, and by extension applied, differently across the world. Despite the increased focus and awareness of housing density, there appears to be little coherence or consensus within the planning and development sector, political circles and the general community about what it is, how it should be applied, and whether or not it is a positive or negative feature. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify stakeholders’ understanding of density. In order to achieve this, a case study approach was adopted in order to know the various stakeholders’ awareness and comprehension of density, and to that end, Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, was selected as a case study city for this purpose. The research demonstrated that the stakeholders’ perception of density is strongly influenced by the built form of residential areas (for example, public image) rather than that of measurement or scale, even though there is no direct relationship between built form and density.
2
Dempsey et al. (2009)
The social dimension of sustainable development: Defining urban social sustainability
Sustainable development is a widely used term, which has been increasingly influential on UK planning, housing and urban policy in recent years. Debates about sustainability no longer consider sustainability solely as an environmental concern, but also incorporate economic and social dimensions. However, while a social dimension to sustainability is widely accepted, exactly what this means has not been very clearly defined or agreed. This paper aims to address this disparity through a detailed exploration and definition of the concept of social sustainability within the urban context. The relationship between urban form and social sustainability is explored and two main dimensions of social sustainability are identified and discussed in detail: equitable access and the sustainability of the community itself. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
188
Burton (2000)
The Compact City: Just or Just Compact? A Preliminary Analysis
The aim of the research described in this paper is to examine the validity of the claims that higher-density urban form promotes social equity—that is, promotes benefits for the life-chances of low-income groups. Overall, the evidence suggests that, for medium-sized English cities, higher urban densities may be positive for some aspects of social equity and negative for others. More specifically, likely benefits include improved public transport, reduced social segregation and better access to facilities, while the main problems are likely to be reduced living space and a lack of affordable housing. Investigations of different aspects of density show that the cities that most support social equity appear to be those that have a large proportion of high-density housing
407
Dave (2010)
High Urban Densities in Developing Countries: A Sustainable Solution?
High-density developments are widely claimed to make an important contribution to achieving sustainable growth of cities in developed countries. The compact city model is claimed to be a suitable model for such cities. How far the high-density compact city model is relevant for sustainable urban growth in cities in developing countries which already have higher densities than those in developed countries is as yet unknown. This paper contributes to this theoretical debate with empirical evidence from eleven neighbourhoods of varying densities and built form patterns within the Mumbai Metropolitan Region in India. In so doing, the critical aspects of social, economic and environmental sustainability as well as both physical and perceived dimensions of densities are discussed within the particular context of Mumbai. Evidence from this research suggests that higher densities and compact developments do have potential to achieve sustainable development in rapidly growing cities in developing countries.
14
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