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Islam: Part One

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David Peck

on 18 November 2016

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Transcript of Islam: Part One

Islam
Part One
Founding of Islam
Misconceptions: (1) Arab = Muslim; (2) Middle East= Muslim/Arab
David D. Peck, Ph.D.
Significance of the past to Islamic Identity
Facts About Islam Today:
1.25 Billion worldwide
Indonesia, Bangladesh. Pakistan India, Nigeria
Sunni: 85%l; Shi'ite 15% (Iran, Iraq, Bahrain)
57 Countries significant or majority population
Muhammad
570-632
rashidun
632-661
Umayyads
661-750
Early Abbasids
750-945
Late Abbasids
945-1260
Pre-Islamic Arabia
jahiliyya: "Age of Ignorance"
Ignorance of Allah's tawhid (oneness)
"Age of Idolatry" (Qur'an 3:154)
"Paganism" (Qur'an 5:50)
"Age of Barbarism" (Qur'an 33:33)
"The zealotry of Lawlessnesss" (Qur'an 48:26)
Muhammad (AD 570-632)
Orphaned by age 6
Protection of grandafther and uncle
Good reputation
Marries Khadija (caravan owner)
Troubled over jahilliya
Seeks spiritual guidance
Night of Power (610)
Early Revelations (610-622)
Allah's oneness, uniqueness
Rejection of Idolatry
Worship
Prayer and fasting
Charity
Orphan and widow
Day of Judgment
Surat 107: al-ma'un (the Charity)
Flight to Medina (622)
Persecution of Muslims
Muhammad invited to Yathrib
Medinat al-nabi (Medina)
Defines Muslim society and government
Battles with Mecca
Beginning of Islamic calendar
Constitution of Medina
Non-Muslim members have equal political and cultural rights as Muslims. They will have autonomy and freedom of religion.
Non-Muslims will take up arms against the enemy of the Ummah and share the cost of war. There is to be no treachery between the two.
Non-Muslims will not be obliged to take part in religious wars of the Muslims.

Medinan Revelations (622-632)
Governance
Laws:
Contracts and obligations
Personal status
Divorce
Inheritance

Qur'an 2:228. Divorced women shall wait concerning themselves for three monthly periods. Nor is it lawful for them to hide what Allah Hath created in their wombs, if they have faith in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And women shall have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable; but men have a degree (of advantage) over them. And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.
Final Years (630-632)
Conquest of Mecca (630)
Conquest of Arabia
Farewell pilgrimage
"Today I have ... chosen Islam as a religion for you."
From "The Message" (1977)
Caliphate
Crisis over Succession
khalifa rasul allah
Successor of the Messenger of Allah
Imam
Amir al-mu'miniin
Commander of the Faithful
Sultan
First Four: "rashidun" (rightly-guided)
Elected by a "shura" (council)
Ruled from medina
Caliph Abu Bakr (r. 632.634)
Wars of Apostasy (ridda)
Raids outside Arabia
Caliph Umar (r. 634-644)
Expansion Syria, Persia, Egypt
So-called "Pact of Umar"
This is an assurance of peace and protection
given by the servant of Allah, Omar-
Commander of the Believers to the people of Ilia' (Jerusalem). He gave them an assurance of
protection for their lives, property, church
and crosses as well as the sick and healthy
and all its religious community.
Caliph Uthman (r. 644-656)
Standardized Qur’an
Assassination
Caliph Ali (r. 656-661)
Battle of the Camel
Death
Origins of Shi'ism
Umayyad Dynasty (661-750)
Capital moved to Damascus
Hussein/Karbala (680), Shi’ism
Conversions: Persia/N. Africa
Alienation: Jizya tax
Revolt: Abbasids (745-750_

Early Abbasid Dynasty (570-945)
Founding of Baghdad
Harun al-Rashid (r. 768-809)
Charlemagne’s embassy
One Thousand and One Nights
House of Wisdom
Islamic Civilization

Five Pillars of Islam
Orthopraxy
1. Witness
2. Prayer
3. Fasting
4. Charity
5. Pilgrimage

Five Pillars of Islam
Orthopraxy
1. Witness
"I testify that
there is no
god but Allah
and Muhammad
is His Messenger:"
Five Pillars of Islam
Orthopraxy
2. Prayer (salat)
5 times daily
Dawn
Noon
Afternoon
Evening
Night
Five Pillars of Islam
Orthopraxy
3. Fasting (Sasawnlat)
Month of Ramadan
29 days
Dawn
Night
No food, water
Read Qur'an
Five Pillars of Islam
Orthopraxy
4. Charity
Voluntary
OBligatory
Zakat
Zakat al-fitr
Five Pillars of Islam
Orthopraxy
5. Pilgimage (hajj)
Once in lifetime
Vicarious
Mecca
Ka'aba
•Culmination of Translation begun under Umayyads
•Transmission to the West and major innovations in:
Philosophy
Mathematics and astronomy
Medicine
Decentralization





Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171)

Decentralization





Buyid Dynasty (934-1055)

Late Abbasids (945-1260)
Late Abbasids (945-1260)
Late Abbasids (945-1260)
Late Abbasids (945-1260)
Six Pillars of Faith
Orthodoxy
1. Allah
2. Angels3. Scripture
4. Prophets5. Day of Judgment
6. Foreknowledge of God
Islam
Part Two
Classical Islamic Civilization
Full transcript