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Justin Nguyen

on 9 December 2013

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Transcript of Optics

By: Justin Nguyen
Each topic covered in the Optics unit will be colour coded with the colours here
Introduction to Light-->What would Earth be like without light from the sun? Sunlight is the energy that makes life possible on Earth. Nuclear reactions that occur within the sun produce tremendous amounts of energy. One form of energy produced is light, which the sun emits in all directions through space. Earth captures only a tiny fraction of that light. That little fraction however, provides just enough energy to heat the
Earth's surface, allow for photosynthesis to occur, Without light, you can't even see!

Introduction to Light
How is Light Produced?
Mirrors-Plane, Concave, Convex, Refraction
Lenses-Converging and Diverging
The Eye
Introduction to Light
Light travels at a speed of 3.00x10 to the exponent of 8 m/seconds!
Light travels in straight lines
Electromagnetic Waves: A wave that has both electric and magnetic parts; does not require a medium and travels at the speed of light-Light is an electromagnetic wave
Electromagnetic Spectrum: The classification of electromagnetic waves by energy
How is Light Produced?
Incandescence: The production of light as a result of high temperature
Electric Discharge: The process of producing light by passing an electric current through a gas. (E.g. Neon Lights)
Phosphorescence: The process of producing light by absorbing UV light resulting in the emission of visible light over an extended period of time. (E.g. Glow in the Dark Toys)
Fluorescence: The immediate emission of visible light as a result of the absorption of UV light

Chemiluminescence: The direct production of light as a result of a chemical reaction with little or no heat produced
Bioluminescence: The production of light in living organisms as a result of a chemical reaction with little or no heat produced.
Triboluminescence: The production of light from friction as a result of scratching, crushing, or rubbing certain
Mirrors-Plane, Concave, Convex, Refraction
Terminology of Reflection
Light Ray: A line on a diagram representing the direction and path that light is traveling
Geometric Optics: The use of light rays to determine how light behaves when it strikes objects
Incident Light: Light emitted from a source that strikes an object
Transparent: When a material transmits all, or almost all incident light; objects can be clearly seen through material
Translucent: When a material transmits some incident light, but absorbs and reflects the rest; objects are not clearly seen through the material
Opaque: Not transmitting any incident light; all incident light is either reflected, or absorbed; objects cannot be seen through the material
Image: Reproduction of an image through the use of light
Mirror: Any polished surface reflecting an image
Reflection: The bouncing back of light from a surface
Incident Ray: The incoming ray that strikes a surface
Reflected Ray: Ray that bounces off a reflected surface

Terminology of Reflection Cont.
Plane Mirror: A flat mirror
Normal: The perpendicular line to a mirror surface
Angle of Incidence: The angle between the angle of incidence and normal
Angle of Reflection: The angle between the angle of reflection and normal.

Light rays and the Laws of Reflection can help determine how and where an image is formed on a mirror. A light source radiates light rays which strike the mirror and are reflected into your eyes.
These light rays are reflected off the mirror, with the angle of incidence being equal to the angle of reflection. From everyday experiences, we know that light travels in a straight line. This belief is so strong that when your eyes detect reflected light from a mirror, your brain is thinking there is a light source behind the mirror, which results in you seeing an image in the mirror
Locating Images in
Curved Mirrors
Concave Mirror (AKA Converging Mirror): Shaped like the inside of a circle
Convex Mirror (AKA Diverging Mirror): Shaped like the outside of a circle
Centre of a Curvature (C): "The Center of the Sphere"
Principal Axis (PA): The straight line through the center of curvature (C)
Vertex (V): Point where PA meets mirror
Converge: To meet at one point
Focus (F): The point at which light rays that are parallel to the PA converge when reflected
Convex Mirror
Concave Mirror
Describing Images Using SALT
Real Image: Image is formed where light rays actually meet. The image can be found in front of the mirror.
Virtual Image: Image is formed where light rays do not actually eat. You must look through a mirror to see the image

What is Refraction?
Refraction is the bending or change in light
when it travels from one medium to another.
Refraction causes interesting effects whenever light travels from one medium to another.

1. The incident, refracted ray, and normal all lie on the same plane. The incident and refracted ray are on opposite sides of the line that separates the two media.
2. Light bends towards the normal when the speed of light
in the second medium is less than the speed of light in
the first medium. Light bends away from the normal
when the speed of light in the second medium is
The Speed of Light:
3.00 x 10^8 m/seconds in air
2.26 x 10^8 m/sec in water
1.76 x 10^8 m/sec in acrylic
Partial Reflection and Refraction
Refraction is often accompanied by reflection. For example,
some light that strikes water is reflected off the water,
but a great deal of light is also refracted as it enters the water and illuminates it below the surface.
a transparent window exhibits the same property that light can be both reflected and refracted at the same
time. This is called partial reflection and refraction.

Two-Way Mirrors: Partial reflection and refraction can be enhanced if glass has a special film coating behind
it that allows some of the incident light to be refracted, but also reflects much of the incident light.
This results in a mirrored surface you can see through, but others cannot.
The Index of Refraction
The ratio of the speed if light in air to the speed of light in a medium--n=c/v; this value is also equal to the ratio of the sine of the refracted ray in a medium
n=sinLi / sinLR
NOTE: Li=angle of incidence
LR=angle of refraction
c=speed if light in air
v-speed of light in the
given medium

Snell's Law
Critical Angle and Internal Reflection
Phenomena Related to Refraction
Apparent Depth:
The depth that an object appears to be at due to the refraction of light in a transparent medium.
A virtual image that forms as a result of refraction and total reflection in Earth's atmosphere
The separation of white light into its constituent colours
Lenses-Converging and Diverging
Converging Lens
Diverging Lens
A lens that thickens in the middle
Parallel incident rays will refract to meet at a focus point
A lens that is thinnest in the middle
Parallel incident rays will refract away after hitting a diverging lens
Optical Center (O): The middle of the lens
Primary Focus Point (F): Reference for how things will converge or
converge or diverge from
Secondary Focus Point (F^1): Reference point to create a parallel
refracted ray
Converging Lens
Diverging Lens
Lens Equation
An Equation to determine the distance to focus point (F), and the distance of the image (di) and distance of the object
Images In Lenses
1. Incident rays will refract to F
2. Incident ray through F will refract parallel to PA
3. Incident ray through O will go through straight

1. Incident diverging rays will refract using F as
2. Incident ray through F^1 will refract parallel to PA
3. Incident ray through O will go straight through.
Images in Lenses-->Diagrams
Diverging Lens
Converging Lens
Rules for Lens Equation
The Eye
The Parts and
Functions of the Eye
Conjunctiva: Covers the sclera and helps lubricate it--> where tears come from
Cornea: Tough covering over the iris and pupil to protect them
Aqueous Humour: A clear fluid that keeps the cornea shape round
Vitrous Humour: A thick clear jelly that gives the eye its shape
Pupil: the hole in the center of your iris that lets light into the eye
Iris: Muscle that controls the size of the pupil
Lens: A clear, flexible structure that make an image at the back of the retina; will change shape to focus on object
Retina: Light sensitive layer at the back of the eye
Chloroid: Provides oxygen and nourishment for eyes and the outer layer of the retina
Sclera: Thick, tough, white outer layer covering the eye
Optic Nerve: Bundle of nerves that send information from the retina to the brain
The Parts and Function of the
Eye Cont.
Blind Spot: Place where no rods (light sensitive) or cones (colour sensitive) cells exists
Suspensory Ligaments: Keeps your eye in place
Ciliary Muscles: The part of the eye that connects the iris to the choroid. The ciliary muscle alters/changes the curvature of the lens
Focusing Problems
Hyperopia (Far-Sighted):
Hyperopia is the inability of the eye to focus light from near objects. Far sightedness usually occurs because the distance between the lens and the retina is too small, or because the cornea-lens combination is too weak. Instead, light from all nearby objects focus
the retina.
Myopia (Near-Sighted):
Myopia is the inability of the eye to focus light from distant objects. Near-sightedness usually occurs because the cornea-lens combination converges light too strongly. In the near-sighted eye, light from distant objects is brought to a focus
in front
of the retina.
Presbyopia is a form of far-sightedness caused by loss of accommodation as a person ages. Presbyopia can be corrected by glasses with converging lenses.

Visible Light
Visible White Light is composed of a continuous sequence of colours. This colour sequence is known as the visible spectrum. There are seven identified colours: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet (ROY G. BIV).
Focusing Problems Continued
Astigmatism: a defect in the eye or in a lens caused by a deviation from spherical curvature, which results in distorted images, as light rays are prevented from meeting at a common focus.

How to Correct These Problems
Contact Lenses:
A contact lens is a lens placed directly on the cornea of the eye. Contact lenses serve the same purpose as glasses. A contact lens can be shaped so that it can be used for correcting far sightedness, or nearsightedness.
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