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Figueroa's Framework - Interpersonal Level
Transcript of Figueroa's Framework - Interpersonal Level
What is the interpersonal level??
This is the level of FF where socialisation, and socialisation agents are examined to see how they may have affected your participation in physical activity, exercise and sport.
You might not realise how much your decisions to participate are influenced by other people. (Remember that this influence can be positive or negative.)
According to Amezdroz et.al., (2010, p.478), socialisation is the ongoing process by which individuals learn and are taught to conform to existing norms and values. In addition, social norms are forms of behaviour that are accepted as correct and 'proper' by the majority of people.
What are some examples of social norms?
Eg. Not picking your nose, flushing the toilet after you've been...
So how might socialisation and the concept of social norms affect our participation in sport and exercise then??
The 2 Aspects of Socialisation
There are two areas to consider when looking at the interpersonal level and socialisation:
1. Socialisation into sport. This looks at the factors which influence the ways people become involved in sport.
2. Socialisation via sport. This investigates how involvement in sport has influenced us and others, including other participants.
Agents of Socialisation - Who causes or helps?!
Significant people in our lives can be called socialising agents. Who might we call significant? And what impacts might they have?
Immediate family members
What do they do??
It can vary, depending on which socialising agent is involved. Basically these significant others teach us to accept and acknowledge our cultural customs, values and norms. When learning occurs, the behaviour becomes routine. For example a 'proper' behaviour in your house might be to brush your
teeth before bed.
More details about influence...
Research has shown that children who grow up in families who are enthusiastic about sport are more likely to develop an interest and passion for involvement than children within a family that has little connection within sport or physical activity. (Which socialising agent would this be?)
Research also shows that by about age 10, the influence of peers is a powerful socialising force. Children begin to compare themselves with others, and those who are more physically competent tend to have more friends. In addition, if children are confident in their abilities they are far more likely to be involved in sport and physical activity in the future. Social interaction can also become a reason for participation in sport or physical activity.
What about the media?
It can argued that no part of society is untouched by the media. If this is true, then the media plays a role in the socialisation of individuals IN sport, and also VIA sport.
Sport and the media are so closely linked that for some national codes, their ongoing funding is dependent on renewing big buck media deals every few years. Consider the NRL and AFL TV deals, and the ongoing Cricket debacle with Ch 10 hosting the Big Bash and Ch 9 everything else.
Some sociologists argue that sport has been manipulated by the media.
What are some messages the media provides to us through sport, or about sport in general?
Ensure that you learn the difference between biological sex and gender.
The ways in which males and females are expected to behave is determined by cultural values, attitudes and beliefs. This can include aspects of gender such as clothing, interests, attitudes, behaviours and aptitudes. Society definitely expects certain behaviours from males, and certain behaviours from females. Often the only basis for these expectations is a stereotype.
Each of the powerful agents of socialisation we have looked at earlier within this prezi treat boys and girls differently. Males are often encouraged to be active and strong, whereas females are often encouraged to be passive and patient. Consider the types of toys young children often receive for birthdays... The most powerful socialising agent in terms of gender is the mass media, as they simply reinforce societal attitudes, beliefs and values, including those related to sport.
This means the leadership or dominance of males over females in society... and there is a LOT of evidence of this in sport and physical activity in Australia. Despite lots of programs to encourage equal opportunities for women, sport and physical activity continue to be shaped by the early views of exercise being a male domain.
Often male gender construction is based around participation in 'masculine' sports, usually team sports. Femininity within sport tends to be defined in a negative way... consider the insults/encouragement coaches might give young male athletes...
Maybe it can be simplified as far as 'sissies vs tomboys'... what could this mean?
From an early age females tend to underestimate and undervalue their capacity and potential for successful participation in sport becaue of its masculinised structure. As a result, a girl's physical skills and abilities constantly fall behind those of her male classmates.
What might some loger term consequences of this be?
Thinking time / Homework...
1. Develop a list of all interpersonal factors that affect participation in physical activity for the following groups:
2. Discuss how a sibling can be a negative or positive influence on sport and physical activity. (PEEL PARA!)
3. List and JUSTIFY three ways that peers can be a positive influence on participation.