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Romantic Era Science and Tech.
Transcript of Romantic Era Science and Tech.
1799~Humphry Davy discovers nitrous oxide (laughing gas), first effective anesthetic.
1800~Oliver Evans (USA) invents conveyer belt; constructed fully automatede flour mill.
1801~Robert Trevithick demonstrates a steam locomotive.
1803-22~Caledonian Ship Canal cuts clear across Scotland via the Great Glen.
1807~Robert Fulton's "Clermont" first successful steamboat.
1811-15~Luddite riots: laborers attack factories and break up the machines they fear will replace them.
1812~Napoleon's surgeon, Baron Larrey, develops painless amputation.
1812~Friedrich Gottlob Koenig and Andreas Friedrich Bauer invent high-speed printing press.
1821~Faraday demonstrates electro-magnetic rotation, the principle of the electric motor.
1825~Marc Brunel invents a tunnelling shield, making subaqueous tunnelling possible.
1826-42~Brunel builds the first subaqueous tunnel, under the Thames.
1827~Berkeley Ship Canal connects Sharpness (on the Severn) to Gloucester.
1829~Braille perfects his reading method for the blind.
1830~Manchester–Liverpool railway begins first regular commercial rail service.
1831~Von Liebig discovers chloroform; Faraday discovers electro-magnetic current, making possible generators and electric engines. Basic Description of the Era
Industrial, Automated, Mechanical, Manufactured, Innovative, Motorized, Technical, Machine-oriented, Inventive, Laborious, Polluted, Crowded, Urbanized, Constructive How did Science and Technology Effect this Era?
People were able to create medicines. People became healthier.
More jobs became available for people since factories began to appear everywhere.
Cities became more and more populated and full of people. Technology
In the romantic era some inventions that came about were the steam engines and the railroads were still very popular. These two inventions helped people to get supplies around to different parts of the country faster. People were also able to travel and visit people easier. Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829) was considered the most important man of science in Britain who could be described as a Romantic. His new take on what he called "chemical philosophy" applied Romantic principles that influenced chemistry. He stressed the discovery of “the primitive, simple…causes of phenomena” in the physical world and the chemical elements already known, that were discovered by Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, an Enlightenment philosopher. Davy claimed that it was not the individual components, but their associations, which gave character to substances. It was not what the elements were individually, but how they combined to create chemical reactions. Chemistry The nature of mathematics changed in the 19th century from a narrative practice to a theoretical one of logic, rigor, and internal consistency. Unexpected new fields emerged, such as non-Euclidean geometry and statistics, as well as many theories and logic. As the discipline changed, so did the nature of men involved, and the Romantic genius often found art, literature, and music to be applied to mathematics. Many famous mathematicians of the Romantic Era were Evariste Galois (1811–32), Niels Henrik Abel (1802–29), and János Bolyai (1802–60). The greatest of the Romantic mathematicians was Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855), who made major contributions in many branches of mathematics. Mathematics There were many connections between science and poetry, such as the works of natural historian William Bartram and British naturalist Charles Darwin. Bartram's Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida (1791) described the flora, fauna, and landscapes of the American South with a cadence and energy. This was a source of inspiration to many Romantic poets of the era such as William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and William Blake. Natural History Alexander von Humboldt was an advocate of collecting data and the necessity of a natural scientist using experience and quantification to understand nature. He sought to find the unity of nature and wrote Aspects of Nature and Kosmos about the aesthetic qualities of the natural world by describing nature in religious tones. He believed that science and beauty complemented one another. This was also called Humboldtian Science. Understanding Nature The works of Han Christian Ørsted (1777–1851) were based on Romanticism. His discovery of electromagnetism in 1820 was directed mathematically against the Newtonian physics of the Enlightenment. He considered technology and science to be unrelated with the true nature of scientific research. He was strongly influenced by Immanuel Kant’s critique of corpuscular theory and his collaboration with Johann Wilhelm Ritter (1776-1809). Ørsted approved of a Romantic natural philosophy but rejected the idea of the universal extension of mechanical principles that were understandable by mathematics. To him, natural philosophy was a way to detach himself from utility and become an autonomous enterprise and shared the Romantic belief that man’s interaction with nature was the focal point of natural philosophy. Physics: Electromagnetism In Johann Goethe’s experiments with optics, he applied many applications of the Romantic ideals into his observations. He disregarded much of Newton’s work with optics. He believed that color was not an outward physical phenomenon, but internal to the human. While Newton believed white light was a mixture of all the colors of light, Goethe disproved this with his observational experiments. He also put emphasis on the human ability to see color and to gain knowledge through “flashes of insight”, and not just a mathematical equation, but by concepts. Physics: Optics The “new science of biology” was first called “biologie” by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in 1801. It was an independent scientific discipline saying that the phenomena of nature cannot be understood by physics but require another explanation. This was called mechanical philosophy and it sought to explain life as a system that operates like a machine. Lamarck stated that life sciences must be separated from the physical sciences. He wanted to create another field of science that was different from the laws of physics. He was able to conclude that living things have unique characteristics which cannot be reduced to its physical parts and said that living nature was an assemblage of metaphysical parts (un ensemble d’objets métaphisiques). However, he didn’t discover biology; he just organized previous works together and formed them into a new science, which we call biology. Biology Science in the Romantic Era Astronomer William Herschel (1738–1822) and his sister Caroline Herschel (1750–1848), were intensely dedicated to the study of the stars and changed the public conception of the solar system, the Milky Way, and the meaning of the universe. Astronomy Organic Chemistry The development of organic chemistry in the 19th century necessitated the acceptance by chemists of ideas deriving fromnatural philosophy, modifying the Enlightenment concepts of organic composition put forward by Lavoisier. Of central importance was the work on the constitution and synthesis of organic substances by contemporary chemists. The technology that developed during the Romantic Era was based around the Industrial Revolution. The main examples of this technology are the steam engine, the spinning jenny, and the cotton gin. All are invented for furthering the productivity of the industrial revolution. Technology of the Romantic Era